Pakistan Research Repository


Yasmeen, Samina (2005) IMPACT OF HIGHER EDUCATION IN UNDERSTANDING OF SOCIAL RECOGNITION IN WOMEN. PhD thesis, PMAS-Arid Agriculture University, Rawalpindi.



The study aimed at investigating the impact of higher education in understanding of social recognition in women. The major objectives of the study were: (1) To find out the impact of higher education on women in developing understanding about their rights; (2) To determine the level of understanding about the constitutional/legal rights of women of Islamic Republic of Pakistan who acquired higher education; (3) To examine the extent to which women who acquired higher education enjoy their rights in society; (4) To find out the discriminations and violations of law the women of higher education feel; (5) To recommend improvements in higher education and to develop system for social awareness in women. The population of the study was all female teachers and students of public universities of Pakistan. Among them ten universities were randomly selected for sample. 5% of female students and 50% female teaching staff were included in the sample of the study. After going through the relevant literature a questionnaire was developed. For data collection the questionnaire validated with the help of university teachers and students was administered by the researcher herself in the reachable universities and the procedure of mailing was adopted for the rest of the universities taken in sample. The researcher made many efforts to collect 100% questionnaire from the sample. Data collected through above mentioned instruments was tabulated, analyzed and interpreted using Chi-Square as a statistical tool, in the light of the objectives of the study. The study concluded that higher education created sense in women about their rights, responsibilities, empowerment, and leadership in household, nurturing their children well and adjustment in their families. Respondents indicated that though fundamental rights were ensured under the constitution but the laws protecting the women rights in Pakistan worked on papers but were not been enforced to protect them in the way they were written. Majority of respondents mentioned that higher education provoked them that to get property share from parents was their due right but they were socially discouraged to claim this right. University teachers and students mentioned that there were numerous social barriers for female education in Pakistan. Islam condemns all form of violence against women. The social construction of gender established man s authority and dominants over women and provided the basis for gender based violence in society. It was reported by female university teachers and students that there was an overwhelming preference for male child in our society. The major hindrance in social recognition of women in Pakistan according to the respondents were the domination of male in society, lack of awareness about their rights and traditions and customs prevailing in the society. On the basis of conclusions of the study it was recommended that facilities of higher education should be provided to the far flung areas of Pakistan especially for females. At every Tehsil head quarter there should be a college for girls. This step will enhance the awareness of women for their rights; responsibilities and empowerment in the society. A special subject of female education should be introduced from class one to PhD level for every girl student. This step will strengthen the confidence of female for achieving their rights and empowerment. It was recommended to develop human rights education programmes that incorporate the gender dimension at all levels of education, in particular by encouraging higher education institutions, especially in their graduate and postgraduate curricula, to include the study of the human rights of women. Due to cultural and traditional practices even highly educated women did not receive equal rights as those of man. It is important to educate and raise awareness of harmful traditional practices at all levels in society and modify the social and cultural attitudes of both men and women, with a view to eradicating customary practices based on the idea of the inferiority or superiority of either sex or on stereotyped roles of gender. Topics relating to traditional practices should be introduced audiovisual programmes (sketches, plays etc.) should be prepared and articles should be published in this regard. It was also recommended to stop all forms of violence against women; all available media should be mobilized to cultivate a social attitude and climate against such totally unacceptable human behaviors. Violence being a form of social aberration, Governments should advocate the cultivation of a social attitude so that victims of violence do not suffer any continuing disability, feelings of guilt, or low self-esteem. Families, medical personnel and the public should be encouraged to report and have registered all forms of violence.

Item Type:Thesis (PhD)
Uncontrolled Keywords:Impact of higher education, Social recognition in women, Higher education of women, Women rights, Marriage, Polygamy, Divorce, Female heirs, Wife, Mother, Daughter, Sister, Violence, Women empowerment, Constitutional rights, Legal rights, Leadership, Social construction of gender, Gender based violence, Human rights, Gender dimension, Social aberration,
Subjects:Social Sciences(g) > Education(g6)
ID Code:98
Deposited By:Mr Ghulam Murtaza
Deposited On:04 Aug 2006
Last Modified:21 Mar 2015 18:49

Repository Staff Only: item control page