I= POPULATION STRUCTURE AND NATURAL REGENERATION POTENTIAL OF JUNIPERUS EXCELSA (M.BIEB) IN NORTHERN BALOCHISTAN PAKISTAN
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Title of Thesis
POPULATION STRUCTURE AND NATURAL REGENERATION POTENTIAL OF JUNIPERUS EXCELSA (M.BIEB) IN NORTHERN BALOCHISTAN PAKISTAN

Author(s)
Atta Mohammad Sarangzai
Institute/University/Department Details
University of Balochistan/ Department of Botany
Session
2000
Subject
Botany
Number of Pages
177
Keywords (Extracted from title, table of contents and abstract of thesis)
juniperus excelsa (m.bieb), northern balochistan, juniper, sasnamana, chasnak, ziarat

Abstract
A quantitative study was conducted in 66 mono-specific stands of juniper (juniperus excelsa, M. Bieb) forests in four adjacent districts of northern Balochistan. Only 33 species were found along with juniper among which the frequency of sharubs were accounted (28%) followed by herbs (non grasses) (57%) while grasses contributed only (15%) the density of juniper trees (>6cm dbh) ranged from 88-376 stem/ha with a mean of 214 individuals/ha. The average basal area was 33.77 m2ha-1 Higher densities were recorded for relatively undisturbed stands and on the north facing slopes. Juniper density and basal area was significantly correlated (r=0.73, P<0.001). Diameter distributions within the stands were mostly skewed and uni-model with gaps appearing in the large size classes.

Adequate recruitment of Juniper seedlings were observed. Seedling and sapling (<6 cm dbh) desities in 66 stands were average 104+24 ha Highest average seedlings density (ha-1) and basal area (cm2ha-1) recorded from north east facing sloping. Seedling density and its basal area (82%) was higher, the percentage of filled seeds was 13-31%. The over-mature trees and the trees growing on dry sites, produced low quality seeds while medium-size trees from Sasnamana were better seed bearers. The possibility of mast years in juniper also exists and the variation in seed size and seed size class frequency could be due to adaptive polymorphism

The intensity of infection of juniper dwarf mistletoe was high in Chasnak valley than Sasnamana valley. This is reflected in percent of infection and area DMR (Dwarf Mistletoe Rating) for the two valley are infected with a mean rate of DMR=0.90. The differences in infection may be related in forest conditions and topographic factors between the two valleys. Higher elevations range 2800-3000 meters and south-western aspects appeared to favour the highest incidence of infection and there is high potential from tree to tree spread in both of the two valleys.

The soils of the study areas were coarse textured (sandy-loam and loamy sand) basic in reaction and free from salinity- Organic matter contents were deficit, with low amount of dissolved salts. Soil also indicated was observed between tree density basal area, seedling density and soil characteristics. Results of present studies indicate that juniper forests are rapidly degrading due to human disturbances.

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2432.88 KB
S. No. Chapter Title of the Chapters Page Size (KB)
1 0 Contents
150.24 KB
2 1 General Introduction About The Area And Species 1
100.46 KB
  1.1 Introduction 1
  1.2 Juniper Forests Of Balochistan 2
  1.3 Study Area 4
  1.4 Topography 6
  1.5 Climate 7
  1.6 Geology 10
  1.7 Scope Of The Problem 11
3 2 Population Structure And Vegetation Composition Of Juniperus Excelsa ( M.Bieb ) Forests In Northern Balochistan, Pakistan 12
553.23 KB
  2.1 Summary 12
  2.2 Introduction 14
  2.3 Material And Methods 16
  2.4 Results 20
  2.5 Plant Associations 25
  2.6 Juniper Density And Basal Area Related To Sites 28
  2.7 Juniper Density And Basal Area Related To Aspects 30
  2.8 Physical Condition Of Juniper Woodlands 33
  2.9 Sex Distribution 37
  2.10 Size Class Frequency Distribution 40
  2.11 Growth Width And Age Estimate 43
  2.12 Ring-Width Characteristics 47
  2.13 Discussion 52
  2.14 References 58
4 3 A Study Of Natural Regeneration Of Juniperus Excelsa (M. Bieb ) In Northern Balochistan Pakistan 62
188.97 KB
  3.1 Summary 62
  3.2 Introduction 63
  3.3 Material And Methods 64
  3.4 Results 68
  3.5 Juniper Desity And Basal Area 68
  3.6 Effect Of Aspect On Seedlings Density And Basal Area 72
  3.7 Regression Analysis 74
  3.8 Age Estimate 75
  3.9 Seedlings Size Class Frequency Distribution 76
  3.10 Discussion 78
  3.11 References 81
5 4 Morphological Variations And Seed Characteristics Of Juniperus Excelsa In Northern Balochistan Pakistan 84
277.52 KB
  4.1 Summary 84
  4.2 Intruduction 85
  4.3 Background 91
  4.4 Materials And Methods 93
  4.5 Results And Discussion 97
  4.6 References 105
6 5 The Status And Intensity Of Infection Of Juniper Dwarf Mistletoe, Arecuthobium Oxyecdri (Dc).M In Juniper Forests Of Ziarat , Balochistasn, Pakistan 206
278.17 KB
  5.1 Summary 106
  5.2 Introduction 108
  5.3 History Of Dwarf Mistletoe Infection 109
  5.4 Material And Methods 111
  5.5 Results 114
  5.6 Forest Condition In Chadition In Chasnak Valley 114
  5.7 Detection Of Infected Trees 114
  5.8 Intensity Of Infection 118
  5.9 Elevation And Incidence Of Attack 118
  5.10 Aspect And Incidence Of Attack 119
  5.11 Tree Sizes And Incidence Of Attack 120
  5.12 Forest Condition In Sasnamana Valley 121
  5.13 Intensity Of Infection 122
  5.14 Elevation And Incidence Of Attack 122
  5.15 Aspect And Incidence Of Attack 123
  5.16 Tree Size And Incidence Of Attack 124
  5.17 Means Of Spread Of Dwarf Mistletoe Disease 125
  5.18 Discussion And Conclusion 126
  5.19 References 130
7 6 Soil Characteristics And Its Relationship With Community And Topographic Factors 131
221.06 KB
  6.1 Summary 131
  6.2 Introduction 132
  6.3 Background 134
  6.4 Material And Methods 136
  6.5 Results And Discussion 137
  6.6 References 114
8 7 Summary Of Conclusion 153
907.17 KB
  7.1 Summary Of Conclusion 153
  7.2 Summary Of Recommendations And Appecdices 155
  7.3 List Of Publication 162
  7.4 Legend Of Photographs 163