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Title of Thesis  
IRRIGATION AND N–LEVELS FOR WHEAT VARIETIES UNDER BED–PLANTING SYSTEM  
Author(s)  
KHAIR MUHAMMAD KAKAR  
Institute/University/Department Details  
NWFP Agriculture University, Peshawar / Agronomy  
Status (Published/ Not Published/ In Press etc)  
Published  
Date of Publishing  
October, 2003  
Subject  
Agronomy  
Number of Pages  
247  
   
Keywords (Extracted from title, table of contents and abstract of thesis)  

Irrigation, N – Level, Wheat, Water crises, Efficient use of water, Bed planting, Fertilizer management, Split plot arrangements, Anthesis, Tillers, Grain weight, Emergence m-2, Leaf area, Biological yield, Grain yield, Flat sowing, Flat planting, Raised beds

 

 
Abstract  

In the globally changing scenario, to cover the existing water crises, efficient use of water is needed. The current status is, however much gloomier because of stagnating water availability. Bed planting of wheat is one of the approaches to increase water use efficiency and to produce more food per unit of water used. It is important to evaluate the different wheat varieties as well as fertilizer management on bed system of planting. The study which aims at the evaluation of six wheat varieties, three nitrogen levels and four irrigation levels under the four planting methods was carried out using three separate experiments at Agricultural Research Farm of NWFP Agricultural University Peshawar for two years, during 2001-02 and 2002-03. The experiments were designed in RCBD with split plot arrangements. Two factors in all three experiments were studied i.e. four planting methods with four irrigation levels, four planting methods with three nitrogen levels and four planting methods with wheat varieties respectively. Data were recorded on phonological parameters, yield and yield components in all the three experiments. Days to emergence, days to maturity, seed fill duration and plant height were statistically non significant. While days to anthesis, tillers, productive tillers m-2, number of grain weight, emergence m-2, leaf area index, biological yield kg ha -1, grain yield kg ha-1, harvest index and SGR were significantly affected by planting methods and irrigation levels. Flat sowing produced more tillers m-2, while three rows on beds produced more productive tillers, heavier grains, maximum leaf area, harvest index and biological yield. The plot irrigated five times produced more tillers, productive tiller m-2, more grains and heavier grains. Highest grain yield (5294 kg ha -1 ) were noted in plots of 3 rows on beds as well as 3 rows on beds irrigated five times produced highest grain yield comparatively. The phonological parameters were statistically non significant while physiological parameters, yield and yield components were significantly affected by planting methods and nitrogen levels. Broadcast on beds took more days for seed fill duration while 3 rows on beds produced more tillers m-2, productive tillers m-2 , more grains, nitrogen concentration, leaf area, CGR, SGR, harvest index and heavier tillers and grains. Flat planting in rows produced highest biological yield kg ha-1comparatively. Nitrogen applied @ 160 kg ha-1 produced more tillers, grains and highest SGR, CGR, harvest index and 3 rows on beds with nitrogen applied @ 160 kg ha-1 produced more number of tillers and productive tillers m-2 comparatively. Flat planting in rows produced highest grain yield of 5140 kg ha-1 ) grain yield. Days to emergence, days to anthesis and plant height were non significant while the remaining all phonological, physiological, yield and yield components, parameters were statistically significant. More pants emerged in skip row planting. Flat sowing in rows took more days for seed filling. More tillers and productive tillers m-2 were noted in broadcast on beds. 3 rows on beds produced more grains, leaf area, SGR and harvest index while flat planting in rows produced biological yield, Highest grain yield (5920 kg ha-2 ) were produced by flat planting in rows parallel with ( 5374 kg ha-1 ) grain yield produced by 3 rows on beds. V5 shown in rows on flat beds produced highest biological yield. While V2 sown in rows on beds produced more tillers and productive tillers m-2. Maximum plants emerged in V4 V5 and V6 matured in less days V1 took more duration for seed filling and more harvest index, V2 produced more and heaver grains with maximum tillers and productive tillers m-2. More leaf area were recorded in V2 and V5 sown in rows on flat beds produced more grain yields of 6298 and 6320 kg ha-1, respectively. V1, V2, and V5 produced parallel grain yield of 5330, 5325 and 5470 kg ha-1 respectively. It is concluded from the entire research work that wheat crop sown with 3 rows on raised beds irrigated five times and nitrogen applies @ 160 kg ha-1 with proper variety can increase the yield wheat parallel to the flat – planting system. Although the yield from plots under raised bed planting system was slightly lower ( in case of experiment 2 and 3 but higher in experiment 1 ) than the flat planting but this technology is preferred due to its resulted potential benefits i.e. great saving of water, better management of fertilizers, reducing tillage and easy control of weeds.  

 
   
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Sr.No Chapter TABLE OF CONTENTS i 180.kbs
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1 1

GENERAL INTRODUCTION

1
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2 2

SPECIFIC INTRODUCTION

4
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3 3 REVIEW OF LITERATURE 6
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4 4 MATERIAL AND METHODS 27
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5 5 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 32
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6 6 MATERIAL AND METHODS ( Experiment – II ) 73
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7 7 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION  76
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8 8 MATERIAL AND METHODS ( Experiment – III )  131
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9 9 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION  134
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10 10 SUMMARY  186
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11 11 CONCLUSION  187
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12 12 RECOMMENDATIONS  188
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13 13 REFERENCES  189
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14 14 APPENDICES  197
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