I= A REVISION OF THE BERRY BUGS (HETEROPTERA: PENTATOMOIDEA: HALYINI) OF INDO-PAKISTAN SUBCONTINENT WITH SPECIAL REFERECNE TO CLADISTIC ANALYSIS OF HALYINE GENERA Title of Thesis


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Title of Thesis

ANALYSIS OF NTATIONAL SCIENCE CURRICULUM (CHEMISTRY) AT SECONDARY LEVEL IN PAKISTAN

Author(s)

FAISAL REHMAN

Institute/University/Department Details

University of Arid Agriculture, Murree Road, Rawalpindi / Institute of Education and Research

Session

September 29, 2004

Subject

Education

Number of Pages

409

 

Keywords (Extracted from title, table of contents and abstract of thesis)

berry bugs, heteroptera, pentatomoidea, halyini genera, halyini stal, agaeus, tessellatus, ameridalpa, apodiphus, iraqiensis, metallicus, asyla, indicatrix, cahara, carenoplistus, karachiensis, dalpada, erthesina, pakistanensis, eupaleopada, halys, fabricii, hyderabadiensis, mulberriensis, naokotiensis, izharocoris, jugalpada, lodosocoris, azhari, meridalpa, meridindia, mustha, izmirensis, neohalys, acuticornis, neolodosocoris, nevisanus, alternans, orthoschizops, paranevisanus, phricodus, salixocoris, saontarana, burmanica, sarju, surenus, normalis, tipulparra, pentatomidae.

 

Abstract

The present age is the age of science. Modern advancement has changed the life of man. In order to develop our nation, we must focus our attention towards science education. Education is a direct nation building activity. The quality of education depends upon the quality and standard of the curriculum. It means that curriculum plays a vital role in an educational process.

The study was conducted to analyze the science curriculum at secondary level in order to know the present state of science curriculum in Pakistan. The major objectives of the study were (i) To analyze the policy objectives of science curriculum (chemistry) at secondary level in Pakistan, (ii) To analyze science curriculum process with special reference to: Objectives, Content, Methodology and Evaluation. (iii) To critically review the subject matter of Chemistry to point out the strengths and weaknesses at secondary level in Pakistan. (iv) To explore the opinion of curriculum experts about the worth of science curriculum at Secondary level in Pakistan.

All the experts of national science curriculum working in the Ministry of Education Islamabad, Curriculum Bureau in provinces and working teachers of the chemistry at secondary level in the Pakistan constituted the population of the study. All the policy documents, five year plans, chemistry curricula, revision reports and research studies were also included in the population of the study. Curriculum experts were randomly selected to administer the questionnaire. Forty curriculum experts were selected from the curriculum wing Islamabad, provincial curriculum centers, textbook boards and board of intermediate and secondary educations. Eight hundred teachers were selected from all over Pakistan, 400 from the Punjab, 120 from each of Balochistan, NWFP and Sind while 40 teachers were selected from the federal area. The researcher distributed the questionnaire himself, where possible, to the respondent and through contacts where required and collected and received the response. Shelved data or information was obtained from policy documents, five – years plan, science education reports, and economic survey of Pakistan, related books, statistical index and previous researches. Data collected on five – point scale questionnaires was analyzed by using percentage, and Chi Square test.

The major conclusion are that teachers were never involved in the curriculum development process, need assessment is essential for curriculum development, and objectives and content of chemistry curriculum were not fully in consonant with the needs and aspirations of the modern era. Modern teaching methods and techniques of teacher training were required. Evaluation system supported cramming and rote learning rather than comprehension, analysis and evaluation. There was total contrast between the response of the teachers and the experts. The major recommendations are the Selection of content for secondary school curriculum should be based upon the development of scientific skills, scientific attitudes and interests, research based significance and daily experiences of the learner. Training of teachers may be arranged according to the global needs. Sufficient audio – visual should be provided to teachers in order to enhance teaching learning process. Examination of Secondary school curriculum is based upon the achievement of the objectives of the curriculum, comprehensive, application, analysis, synthesis, evaluation, scientific process, scientific skills and attitudes. Internal cum external system of evaluation be introduced. The maximum chapters on the whole are satisfactory but the trend of selective study be abolished and such content may be introduced which promotes the creative thinking. Scientific vision is created among the students and the relationship between science education and world of work is developed and promoted. Researchers and projects are assigned to students according to their mental approach. Latest software regarding the science education and internet facilities is initiated in school. There is great need to regulate science education in collaboration with Pakistan Science and Research Council. Single author books are replaced with multi author books.

 

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S. No. Chapter Title of the Chapters

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    Table of Contents  

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1 1 Introduction 1

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2 2 Review of Literature 11

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3 3 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 29

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4 4 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 60

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5 5 SUMMARY

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6 6 CONCLUSIONS

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7 7 RECOMMENDATIONS

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8 8 LITERATURE CITED

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9 9 APPENDICES

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