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Title of Thesis

Rahmat Ibad Khan
Institute/University/Department Details
University of Karachi/Department of Political Science
Political Science
Number of Pages
Keywords (Extracted from title, table of contents and abstract of thesis)
political development, balochistan, tribalism, feudalism, political process, political culture, political belief, tribal system, electoral behavior, baloch political culture, pathan political culture

Pakistan is one of the very few countries of the world where tribalism/feudalism not only exists but seem to go from strength to strength. Balochistan, the western most province of the country is a citadel of tribalism and all that it entails. Sparsely populated, as compared to other regions of Pakistan, populated by tribes that subsist by and large on sheep herding and primitive crafts, shun learning and modernization and are under absolute control of their respective chiefs. Balochistan seems an anachronism in these days of rapid progress. A cursory view of the Balochis often leads to a despairing shrug of shoulders. However, deep down – if one cares to look closely – there are stirrings: democracy, personal rights, industrialization, education, health care are being longed for, if not openly demanded.

Existences of a large and vigorous Pathan populace, arrival of immigrants from Punjab and India, employment opportunities in Middle East, particularly Oman counter-insurgency military operations in Baloch tribal areas, democracy, education, electronic media etc. have all variously and often symbiotically acted to introduce socio-cultural as well as economic Change, though the pace is undeniably small.

Thus, Balochistan offers a very fruit full field of study of political evolution of a tribal-feudal society. In some ways Balochistan exists in a temporal limbo in so far as it is socio-cultural conditions span a wide spectrum one end of which sits in almost middle ages and the other in the 20th century.

Effort has been made in this thesis to span and scan this whole spectrum against the perspective of Baloch history. I have lived and studies and worked in Balochistan since my birth. I have studied and experienced Baloch as well as Pathan way of life at first hand. Inspite of my fascination with it, I have tried my best to maintain objectivity in this study. Here I would like to explain that most of the data used in this work is taken from the 1981 census report of the country or the books written on the basis of this data. Actually this work could have been more interesting if census, due in 1991, could have been initiated and completed. I would further like to point out that literature on the politics and anthropological study of Balochistan are very rare. Due to this deficiency, I had to depend a lot on newspapers and magazines Although my conclusion might be disputed, but I venture to hope that I shall not be accused of subjectivity or partisanship.

This study would not have been possible without guidance and teaching of my supervisor Mr. Arshad Syed Karim, Professor of Political Science, University of Karachi which is a well reputed and highly placed university in Pakistan. My emphasis is on his teaching and guidance; it was he who taught me to understand and study politics and made me realized how this study is a science; as his pupil I learnt what is meant by political culture, why its study is necessary for study of areas like Pakistan and how the principles of political culture can be applied to sort out answers of the related quarries. Professor Karim also guided me in this research. He is an erudite scholar with deep knowledge of the pitfalls and byways of such a research. I feel honored to be a student of a person of such a caliber. He is a blessing of almighty Allah on me.

Mr. Tariq Mahmood, Deputy Director, University of Karachi, for editing and proof reading of this arduous work.

Mr Mahboobul Rahman Khan, former principal of F.G. Degree College Quetta is a man of principals devoted to educational activities. He inspired me to take up some research work. I am obliged to his unmatchable contribution.

I would also like to thank for cooperation of some friends of mine without which this research could not be completed. In this respect my special thanks are due to Mr. Karim Buksh Quasarani Librarian of F.G Degree College Quetta, who was so helpful in providing me the research materials. I would also like to thank Miss Sagufta Begum, Deputy Secretary (Law) Balochistan, for providing data and moral support. Thanks to Mr. Muhammad Aslam Shaheen of Karachi Psychiatry Hospital, Mr. Jahangir Alam of Agha Khan University Hospital for their assistance in getting this material read and typed. I also thank to Raja Faizul Hassan Faiz, Director Employees Old-age Benefits Institution for providing me assistance for use of computer and Mr. Ejazul Karim Durrani for assisting me in checking and corrections of references. Besides these I am thankful to all those who have rendered their cooperation for completion of this work.

I hope this research though first of its kind would open new avenues of research and ways of development for this part of the country.

Download Full Thesis
2702.12 KB
S. No. Chapter Title of the Chapters Page Size (KB)
1 0 Contents
207.88 KB
2 1 Theoretical Framework 26-71
312.84 KB
  1.1 Political Culture 27
  1.2 Political Belief 30
  1.3 Types of Political Culture 35
  1.4 Political Process 48
  1.5 Political Development 52
  1.6 Impact of Political Culture on Political Development 60
3 2 Historical Perspective of Balochistan 72-100
209.65 KB
  2.1 Origin of Population 74
  2.2 Demographic Study 82
  2.3 Religious Behavior 92
  2.4 Early History 96
4 3 Modern Balochistan 101-187
594.89 KB
  3.1 Origin of Independent State 102
  3.2 The Rulers of Independent Balochistan 104
  3.3 Creeping Influence of the British 152
  3.4 Tribal System 167
  3.5 References 183
5 4 Pakistan and Balochistan Attitudes Toward Federation 188-207
147.4 KB
  References 206
6 5 Rise of Nationalistic Polarization within Balochistan 208-223
149.05 KB
  References 222
7 6 Contemporary Balochistan 224-260
451.22 KB
  6.1 Climatical setup and Ecology 225
  6.2 Economic Characteristics and Development 229
  6.3 Education and Modernity 239
  6.4 Electoral Behavior and Election 252
  6.5 References 260
8 7 Political Culture and Political Development of Balochistan 261-289
191.14 KB
  7.1 Baloch Political Culture 264
  7.2 Pathan Political Culture 272
  7.3 Diversities in Political Culture: Sub-cultural Value Orientations 275
  7.4 Elite Circulation and Decision Making Process 279
  7.5 Village Political Culture and Political Participation 285
  7.6 References 288
9 8 Microscopic View of Political Culture: Local Traditionalism v/s Modernism 290-325
276.42 KB
  8.1 Cultural Localism 291
  8.2 Cultural Elitism 297
  8.3 Ethnic Polarization 300
  8.4 Traditionalism v/s Modernism 315
  8.5 References 324
10 9 Conclusion : Problem and Prospects 326-381
586.66 KB
  9.1 References 380