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Title of Thesis

Sajda Shaheen
Institute/University/Department Details
Department of Biochemistry/ University of Karachi
Number of Pages
Keywords (Extracted from title, table of contents and abstract of thesis)
protein, solid waste, sewage solid waste, sludge protein, , hydrochloric acid, sulphuric acid, by trichloroacetic acid (tca), ammonium sulphate, protein recovery processes, poultry feed

Experiments were carried out to study the chemically, biochemical and microbiological characteristics of sewage solid waste produced at KMC-TPL. Studies have revealed that primary sludge represents a material resource for the recovery of useful products including protein and fats. Possibilities from the recovery of protein from the primary sludge have been examined. Of the various methods tried from the solubilization of sludge protein, change of pH upto 12.5 was the single most effective method. The soluble protein thus obtained was separated form undesirable impurities by precipitation. Nearly 64-80% protein could be precipitation with hydrochloric acid or sulphuric acid. Although over 85% protein could be recovered by trichloroacetic acid (TCA) or ammonium sulphate, yet their used would not be economically feasible. Two pollution parameters, viz bacterial load and biochemical oxygen demand (BCD) were also examined during protein recovery process. The studies have shown a marked decrease in bacterial load during solubilization and 94% removal of BOD5 during whole recovery process.

Studies on the removal of heavy metals during protein recovery processes showed 60-100% removal of Cu, Mn, Zn, Cd, Ni, and Pb. Experiments were also carried out to study the effect of sludge protein on growing broiler rations chicks. Fish mea, meat meal and blood meal broiler rations were partially replaced by sludge protein. These experiments showed that the sludge protein had not only on deleterious effect on the experimental bird but had a beneficial influence on them in respect of weight gain, feed consumption, FCE and PER.

In general, protein recovered from primary sludge has been found suitable for incorporation into animal feeds. The price of sludge protein was estimated Rs. 5.00 per Kg. as against Rs. 6.70, 5.50 and 7.65 for fish meal, meat meal and blood meal respectively. The amount available, which is of the order of million of tons per year, could make a significant contribution to the world’s food supplies

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898.75 KB
S. No. Chapter Title of the Chapters Page Size (KB)
1 0 Contents
75.17 KB
2 1 Statement Of The Problem And Objectives 1
22.83 KB
3 2 Characterization Of Sewage Solid Wastes 6
172.16 KB
  2.1 Introduction 6
  2.2 Materials And Methods 22
  2.3 Results 31
  2.4 Discussion 35
4 3 Recovery Of Sludge Protein And Its Characterization 39
280.93 KB
  3.1 Introduction 39
  3.2 Materials And Methods 44
  3.3 Results 55
  3.4 Discussion 77
5 4 Fate Of Metals During Protein Recovery Processes 93
132.41 KB
  4.1 Introduction 93
  4.2 Materials And Methods 98
  4.3 Results 103
  4.4 Discussion 112
6 5 Sludge Protein As A Poultry Feed Supplement 118
158.52 KB
  5.1 Introduction 118
  5.2 Materials And Methods 121
  5.3 Results 127
  5.4 Discussion 138
7 6 Cost Of Production And Economic Feasibility 147
95.37 KB
  6.1 Introduction 147
  6.2 Cost Estimation 149
  6.3 Fixed Capital Investment 152
  6.4 Estimation Of Product Cost 155
  6.5 Economic Feasibility 158
8 7 General Discussion And Conclusion 164
34.67 KB
9 8 References 170
179.6 KB
  8.1 Appendix 195