|Keywords (Extracted from title, table of contents and abstract of thesis)
islamic political sociology, holy quraan, hadith, sunnah , ijmah, qiyas, abu bakar siddiq, omar bin khattab, uthman bin affan, ali bin abi talib, ibn-e-khaldun, al-ghazali, al-mawardi, al-farabi
Islam as brought to us by the last of the Prophets, Muhammad (Sallallaho Alaihe Wasalam) consists of the sacred teachings, embodied in the Holy Quraan and Hadith. Islamic political sociology will, therefore, have to be defined as the pattern of societies and multi-cultural development through ages of Prophethood, internet of social relations, political and philosophical mentalities of multifarious civilizational spectrum. The most interesting aspect of Islamic political sociology is its flexible nature in dealing with the basic challenges of political modernization.
The main aim of writing this dissertation was to undertake a thorough study of the potentialities of the basic sources of Muslim political thought namely the; (I) The Holy Qur’an (II) The Sunnah (III) Ijmah (IV) Qiyas along with the sociological connotations of Islam in the modern age. The thesis also deals with the traditional approaches, and modern schools of thought (Islamic and non-Islamic) which could enlighten the theme and give us a complete understanding of emerging socio-political parameters regarding evaluation of an Islamic society. In the same I have also referred some of the most modern theories of political science which are playing a vital role in the present socio-political setup of an Islamic state The merger between Islamic socio-political theories and the modern western theories have been discussed logically.
Evolution of Islam is based upon the balance between society and politics according to the fundamentals of the Holy Quran. I have also provide the thorough study of both these elements, providing strong co-relationship between Islamic political system and Islamic sociological patterns. After this evolutionary period Holy Prophet became the center of community as the source of divine guidance and an example of Islamic societal and governmental ethics. Holy Prophet left behind him two elements: (I) his community; as a dynamic force behind Islamic political sociology. (II) Holy Qur’anic precepts for individual and societal conduct of community; providing a strong inspiration and mobility for the socio-political grounds provided through Holy Prophet (Sallallaho Alaihe Wasalam).
These factors played a vital role in shaping the early Islamic State. After the Prophet, a new phase begins in which community became conscious of its new psyche and social unity. This incubation period is marked b the auspicious leadership of Pious Caliph (Abu Bakar Siddiq, Omar Bin Khattab, Uthman Bin Affan and Ali Bin Abi Talib Radi Allaho Unhum), who endeavored to enforce the Holy Qur’anic Laws in the community. This period constitute the beginning of sociopolitical consciousness of Muslims as a start thinking in terms of organized political authority. They elect from themselves some one who is competent to enforce the Holy Qur’anic precepts and preserve the socio-political cohesion of the community under the institution of caliphate. The caliphal contract was a form of governmental contract through which the Ummah was politically as well as socially organized into a state. In this regard Muslim philosophers and political thinkers especially Ibn-e-Khaldun, Al-Ghazali, Al-Mawardi and Al-Farabi contributed their sociological and political theories towards the establishment of an Islamic state which according to them should be a role model for the emerging state of the world and especially for the Muslim Ummah.
In this age of universilization and globalization contemporary Islamic state is seriously facing the problems regarding social status of and Islamic state and reasons behind the decline of their political institutions. The main purpose of this dissertation is to outline the reconstruction of political institutions in the context of the requirement of the modern age. In reconstructing these concepts, the main principle has been to attain the resolution of the conflict between Islamic political thinkers and modern political thinkers. Furthermore nature of the problems faced by Muslim world has also been discussed. Government and society of Saudi Arabia, Iran, Turkey and Pakistan have been presented after an extensive survey of their role as an Islamic polity or a democracy. A thorough study of the behavioral approach in the modern Islamic state is studied in a unified manner with various forms of social inequalities showing how political economy and ideological factors underlie social, racial and ethnic stratification. Modern social behaviour through changing patterns of politics is influencing upon intra-societal variables and extra-societal variables in the present Islamic State. The changing pattern of world politics through globalization has taken roots in the present era. There is going to be a rapid change in the behavioral as well as political patterns through out the world; thus posing a direct challenge to Muslim Ummah whose unity is far from monolithic. In this regard the first and foremost task before Muslim Ummah is the dynamic framework of a positive evaluation of the world politics at the start of a new century and millennium, the Islamic view of universal community of believers seems to be logical as well as rational. The only need is to provide a link between theory and practice. The only dynamic force behind all the Qur’anic precepts is its flexible nature. And this dynamism of Islam inspired me to work on the theme of Islamic Political sociology. The field of Muslim medieval political theory has already been subjected to intensive research by Sherwani, Dr. Hameedullah, Von Kremer, Rosenthal, Tyan and others. Movements of modernism in contemporary Muslim world have been extensively surveyed by the scholars such as Gibb, Smith, Adas, Dr.Basharat Ali, Aziz Ahmed and Dr. Manzooruddin Ahmed. The present study is an attempt to integrate these two theories of medieval and modern Muslim political thought and action.
The three main theoretical approaches of the discipline functionalist, conflict and interactionist perspective are applied where appropriate in a consistent manner. I have also tried, to illustrate socio-political theories and concepts with practical and interesting examples using original sources, historical sources, sometimes contemporary, sometimes cross-cultural. This feature may help doctrine of Muslim political theory to be studied in relation to the socio-political dynamics of the contemporary Muslim world, which will certainly serve the Muslim Ummah.