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Title of Thesis

Naureen Shahzadi
Institute/University/Department Details
University of Agriculture Faisalabad/ Institute of Food Science and Technology
Food Technology
Number of Pages
Keywords (Extracted from title, table of contents and abstract of thesis)
flour, chapati, serum profile, wheat flour, atta, lentil, chickpea, guar gum, composite flours, dietary fiber, dough

Composite flour samples were tested for chapatti making by blending commercial wheat flour (atta) with legumes like lentil, chickpea and guar gum in diverse magnitude to explore their hypocholesterolemic and hypoglycemic worth. Mean squares for proximate analysis of composite flours showed momentous differences in moisture, protein and fat while fiber, ash and NFE differed non significantly due to two month storage period. Means for acidity, peroxide value and phytic acid varied from 0.193 to 0.320%, 0.537 to 0.999 mEq/Kg and 0.677 to 0.597%, respectively. The amount of dietary fiber differed consistently in composite flours and increases with the progressive increase in these legumes especially guar gum. The total chapatti scores were found to be highest 45.27 in T10 (guar gum 3%) followed by 42.87 & 40.27 for T9 (guar gum 2%) and T1 (commercial wheat flour), respectively. It was also observed that T14 (chickpea 5% + guar gum 1%) acquired 39.87 scores showing non significant differences with control. It is noteworthy to point out that guar gum gave whiter look and puffiness to the end product. Significant boost in dietary fiber content was observed in the resultant chapaties due to the adding up of legumes. Maximum dietary fiber 8.16% was observed in chapaties prepared from T10 followed by 7.48% in T9. Moreover T14 also exhibited a dietary fiber content of 7.28% with non significant differences with T16. Percent increase in dietary fiber was 35.32% in T10 followed by 24.05% in T9 and 20.73% in T14 as compared to control. Three best composite flour samples T10, T9 and T14 along with T1 were chosen for efficacy studies in male Sprague Dawley rats. Feed intake and gain in body weight showed a declining tendency by addition of guar gum. There is a progressive mounting trend in water consumption by increasing guar gum in the diet. It is concluded from the current exploration that guar gum 3% followed by guar gum 2% by amalgamation in chapatti is supportive for weight loss program. It was further observed that T10 showed a significant decline (17.19%) in serum cholesterol followed by T14 (13.23%) and T9 (12.33%) as contrast to control. It is advisable that adding up of guar gum 3% followed by chickpea 5% + guar gum 1% and guar gum 2% in the chapaties are helpful to reduce the blood cholesterol level. Drop in LDL and triglycerides were significant while non significant differences were observed for HDL level. Percent diminish of serum glucose in different groups of rats with reference to control explicated that T14 showed utmost (14.57%) followed by T10 and T9 i.e. 11.64% and 9.60% reduction in glucose, respectively. I twas notable that addition of chickpea 5% + guar gum 1% followed by guar gum 3% and guar gum 2% in the chapaties are helpful to reduce the blood glycemic index. It is concluded that there is 12-17% reduction in cholesterol and 10-14% decline in glucose by applying the selected treatments. Canonical analysis also revealed existence of high correlation between dependent and independent variables. It is suggested that ingestion of 5 chapaties weighing 100g each per day prepared from selected composite flours provides an additional 5-8g of dietary fiber that would be supportive for hypercholesterolemic and hyperglycemic individuals.

Download Full Thesis
1835.83 KB
S. No. Chapter Title of the Chapters Page Size (KB)
1 0 Contents
116.9 KB
2 1 Introduction 1
47.01 KB
3 2 Review of Literature 6
276.64 KB
  2.1 Importance of Composite Flours 6
  2.2 Chemical and Microbial Characteristics of Flours 11
  2.3 Dietary Fiber 15
  2.4 Dough Rheological Properties 19
  2.5 Chapati Baking Quality 21
  2.6 Physical Parameters 23
  2.7 Serum Bio-Chemical Profile 26
  2.8 Multivatriate Analysis 32
4 3 Materials and Methods 34
97.11 KB
  3.1 Raw Materials 34
  3.2 Analysis of Raw Materials 34
  3.3 Preparation of Composite Flours 34
  3.4 Chemical Analysis of Composite Flours 36
  3.5 Dough Rheological Properties 39
  3.6 Mold Count 39
  3.7 Preparation of Chapaties 39
  3.8 Sensory Evaluation of Chapaties 39
  3.9 Dietary Fiber in Chapaties 40
  3.10 Selection of Best Samples 40
  3.11 Efficacy Studies 40
  3.12 Analysis of Serum Bio-Chemical Profile 42
  3.13 Statistical Analysis 43
5 4 Result and Discussions 44
1226.18 KB
  4.1 Analysis of Raw Materials 44
  4.2 Chemical Analysis of Composite Flours 46
  4.3 Dough Rheological Properties 69
  4.4 Mold Count 77
  4.5 Sensory Evaluation 80
  4.6 Dietary Fiber of Chapaties 97
  4.7 Efficacy Studies 101
  4.8 Analysis of Serum Bio-Chemical Profile 127
  4.9 Simple Correlation Studies 147
  4.10 Multivariate Analysis 153
6 5 Summary 165
311.1 KB
  5.1 Recommendations 171
  5.2 Literature Cited 172
  5.3 Appendices 191