The main aim of this research study was to develop a Total Quality Management (TQM) model which could lead a company into a Competitive Business Position (CBP) both in local and international markets. A TQM International Quality Award (IQA) model was developed against which a company could assess its progress in areas of quality or prepare an application for a quality award. It is an international, generic and non competitive award model which is applicable to a company of any size, in any business and in any country. The model has overcome the short comings of existing national quality award models and has also filled a gap in the TQM literature.
The TQM IQA model was based on an accepted and comprehensive criteria set. This was developed through a Comprehensive Synthesis Process (CSP) of reviewing relevant quality literature. This CSP covered the short comings of existing syntheses which were either very limited or a guru or industry specific. This CSP also included the criteria set of the best known quality award models like the European Quality Award (EQA), the Deming Prize (DP) and the Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award (MBNQA). The CSP provided a knowledge base in terms of an accepted criteria set for the TQM IQA model. The model has provided the required attributes for a TQM model, in having an accepted criteria set, a framework, being comprehensive, flexible, non prescriptive and universal.
The model passed through four stages of a pre-test validation process against the required attributes of a TQM model, individual critical reviews, multi-disciplinary panel validation and user validation. The model was modified after each stage of debugging before being processed to the next stage. The facilitator lead workshop method was used in the pre-test validation and debugging process as the model was new, and was being used for the first time and in a company, which had little experience of the TQM model assessment process. The rationale for using the facilitator lead workshop method was to refine the model through in depth face to face discussions and understanding of the reviewers point of view. This resulted in a validated TQM IQA model.
The validated TQM IQA model was also compared to the best known national quality award models including the DP, the MBNQA and the EQA in order to check the relative strengths and weaknesses of these models. A three stage comprehensive comparative analysis process showed that the TQM IQA model was more logical in sequencing the factors and elements and comprehensive. Observations, on existing quality award models made, by different quality advocates, have been discussed. The advantages of the TQM IQA model have also been set out which out stand the TQM IQA model aside from existing national and regional quality award models.
The TQM IQA model was successfully used in a self assessment case study of a manufacturing company based in Pakistan. An assessment application was prepared by the company which was then analysed for strengths and for areas for which improvement was needed. The overall results indicated that the company was in the early stages of TQM initiatives and that there were large areas for improvement.
The overall result of this research study was the development of a TQM quality award model which was generic, non competitive, free of national and regional boundaries and gurus ad industry specific nature. The TQM Bureau Lahore Chamber of Commerce and Industry (LCCI) is currently formulating a TQM quality award which will be based on the TQM IQA mode. This will be the first TQM award in Pakistan. Keywords: TQM, Factors and Elements, Attributes, Synthesis Criteria set, Framework, Score, Pre-test validation, Comparative analysis, National and International quality award models.