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Title of Thesis

Determinants of Rural Household Income For Livelihood In Northern-pakistan

Author(s)

Muhammad Israr

Institute/University/Department Details
Institute of Development Studies, Faculty of Rural Social Sciences / Khyber Pukhtunkhwa Agricultural University, Peshawar
Session
2010
Subject
Rural Development
Number of Pages
262
Keywords (Extracted from title, table of contents and abstract of thesis)
Diversification, Diversity, Determinants, Northern, Household, Techniques, Development, Livelihood, Income, Rural, Sources, Agriculture

Abstract
Diverse livelihood strategies have significant socio-economic implication for the livelihood of the rural household.The level and the type of income diversification depend on the accessibility and availability of different income sources.The present research examines the determinants of rural household income with specific objectives to study and identify the different livelihoods sources, and to assess their contribution towards household income.For this purpose a survey was conducted in district Shangla of Northern Pakistan covering 323 households.Using different statistical techniques and econometric models the study finds that ownership of land, livestock, forest, farm machinery, level of education, skill possession, vocational training, access to extension services, village organization membership, decision making power at community level, working relation, labour organization, saving, and remittances significantly contribute towards household income.Diversification of livelihood sources was found common and the reasons responsible for this were the adoption of improved verities of maize crop, improved breeds of livestock, high paid non-farm jobs, seasonal nature of agriculture, and surplus agriculture labour.Significant change was observed after the diversification of household income both from farm and non-farm sources. The result of t-test of diversity indexes was found significant.Average annual income per household before the diversification was Rs. 2,52,578, which increased to Rs. 4,33,390 after the diversification of income, showing an increase of 71.58%.The contribution of the farm livelihood sources towards income of the households after the diversification of income was 30.60% and non-farm income was 69.40%.Farm sources of livelihood contributed more to income inequality while the non-farm sources reduce income inequality among the rural household.The-Gini coefficient found for household income was 0.401.The quantile results show that there is high inequality of income among the rural households.The top quintile households hold about 46 percent of the total income.This growing inequality in income leads to further aggravate the poverty in rural areas.There is great potential for the development of both farm and non-farm livelihood sources but most of the rural dwellers are not equipped to exploit these livelihood sources and hence forced to live below subsistence level. The potential areas that need investment are; dairy farming, improvement in pasture land, increasing herd size, and most importantly development of non-farm sector, which is always neglected while formulation rural development strategies, needs to be included in the policy debates.

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S. No. Chapter Title of the Chapters Page Size (KB)
1 0 CONTENTS

 

 
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2

1

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Problem statement
1.2 Objectives of the study
1.3 Research questions
1.4 Organization of the study

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410 KB
3 2 REVIEW OF LITERATURE

 

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4 3 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.1 Universe of research area
3.2 Selection of sample union councils
3.3 Sampling design
3.4 Calculation of household income
3.5 Application of econometric models to the data
3.6 Capital possession of household and income
3.7 Measurement of income inequality
3.8 Diversification of livelihood sources
3.9 Test for significance
3.10 Limitations of the study

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5 4 SOCIO-ECONOMIC CHARECTERISTICS OF HOUSHEOLDS

4.1 Household size and composition of sample households
4.2 Union council wise household composition and dependency ratio
4.3 Age of sample households heads
4.4 Literacy status of the sample households head
4.5 Educational level of the sample households head
4.6 Occupation of the sample households head
4.7 Land ownership of the sample households
4.8 Size of land holding of the sample households
4.9 Tenural status of the sample households
4.10 Possession of land by type sample households
4.11 Average size of land holding of the sample households
4.12 Availability of irrigation in the sample area
4.13 Sources of irrigation of sample households
4.14 Cropping patterns sample households
4.14 Disposal of crops produced by sample households
4.15 Access to different type of institutions by the sample households
4.16 Possession of livestock by the sample households

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6 5 POSSESSION OF CAPITAL AND DIFFERENT SOURCES CONTRIBUTION TO LIVELIHOOD OF THE SAMPLE HOUSEHOLDS

5.1 Possession of capital
5.2 Results of multiple regressions for income and capital possession
5.3 Assumptions of multiple regressions
5.4 Local and improved livestock breeds of the sample households
5.5 Households possessed buffaloes
5.6 Households possessed cattle
5.7 Households possessed goats
5.8 Household possessed sheep
5.9 Different livelihood sources of the rural household
5.10 Household income from livelihood sources
5.11 Reporting household average income from different sources
5.12 Household reporting income for different livelihood sources
5.13 Diversification of income and its reasons
5.14 Households’ income from livelihood sources before the diversification
5.15 Livelihood diversification effect on income
5.16 Changes in contribution of different sources to total income with diversification
5.17 Change of income from livelihood sources of the reported household
5.18 Changes in income before and after diversification

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7 6 LIVELIHOOD PRODUCATIVE ASSETS AND INCOME OF HOUSEHOLDS

6.1 Work force and their livelihood sources
6.2 Household size and income of the households
6.3 Male members per household and income of the household
6.4 Female working members and income per household
6.5 Relationship between the age of the household head and income
6.6 Effect of literacy status on household income
6.7 Household income and land possession
6.8 Household income and tenural status
6.9 Size of land holding and income of the household
6.10 Income of the land owner households as per source of irrigation
6.11 Income of the land owner households as per farm production
6.12 Main source of livelihood and household income
6.13 Effect of forests on household income
6.14 Effect of diversification on household income
6.15 Educational level and diversification of income
6.16 Effect of land holding on diversification
6.17 Availability of irrigation water and diversification of income
6.18 Adoption of improved agricultural varieties and diversification of income
6.19 Effect of improved breeds of livestock rearing on income diversification
6.20 Effect of switching over from farm to non-farm activity on diversification
6.21 Effect of migration on household income diversification

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8 7 MEASUREMENT OF INCOME INEQUALITY

7.1 Income inequality among the sample households
7.2 Measurement of income inequality of sample household by Lorenz curve
7.3 Income sources inequality by Gini-decomposition before income diversification
7.4 Gini-decomposition of income inequality by income sources after diversification
7.5 Quintile as measure of income inequality before diversification of income
7.6 Quintile as measure of income inequality after diversification of income

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9 8 FACTORS AFFECTING TOTAL HOUSEHOLD INCOME

8.1 Factors affecting household income
8.2 Interpretation of results of multiple regression
8.3 Diagnostic test for the assumptions of multiple regression
8.4 Results of the Diagnostic Test

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10 9 DIVERSIFICATION OF HOUSEHOLD INCOME

9.1 Conclusions
9.2 Future Work

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11 10 SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

10.1 Summary
10.2 Conclusions
10.3 Recommendations

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12

11

LITERATURE CITED AND APPENDIX

 

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