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Title of Thesis

Measurement of Environmental Radioactivity and Assessment of Doses to the General Public in Rechna Doab, Pakistan

Author(s)

Abdul Jabbar

Institute/University/Department Details
Comsats Institute Of Information Technology, Islamabad
Session
2011
Subject
Physics
Number of Pages
162
Keywords (Extracted from title, table of contents and abstract of thesis)
Samples, Radioactivity, Measurement, Doses, Emitting, External, Assessment, Assessment, General, Public, Quantities, Population, Humans, Significant

Abstract
A systematic study in Rechna Doab, Pakistan was carried out to establish background radiation data and to assess the radiological environmental pollution and its impact on the humans and the environment.The study was carried out through the measurement of gamma and beta emitting radionuclides in different environmental media e.g. soil, surface water, vegetation and staple food.The concentration levels of primordial radionuclides 226Ra, 232Th and 40K and anthropogenic radioisotopes 137Cs and 90Sr were determined.As the study area was quite large, having different lithological components so it was divided into three parts as northern, mid and southern.Gamma ray spectroscopy technique was used to study the gamma emitting radionuclides in different environmental media. Mean radioactivity levels in soil of northern parts of the study area came out to be 226Ra, 45.01.3 Bq kg-1, 232Th, 59.62.8 Bq kg-1, 40K, 613.820.0 Bq kg-1 and 137Cs, 4.00.2 Bq kg-1. The concentration levels of radioisotopes in soil of mid Rechna Doab were 226Ra, 49.01.6 Bq kg-1 232Th, 62.43.2 Bq kg-1, 40K, 670.633.9 Bq kg-1 and 137Cs, 3.50.4 Bq kg-1.The levels of concerned radionuclides in soil of southern parts were 226Ra, 50.61.7 Bq kg-1, 232Th, 62.33.2 Bq kg-1, 40K, 662.232.1 Bq kg-1 and 137Cs, 3.10.3 Bq kg-1.The radioactivity levels in surface water collected from the study area were 226Ra, 0.90.2 Bq l-1 and 40K, 2.51.6 Bq l-1 while the levels of the concerned radionuclides in vegetation were 226Ra, 2.70.4 Bq kg-1 232Th, 2.20.1 Bq kg-1 and 40K, 172.74.0 Bq kg-1.Potassium-40 was the only radionuclide found in the staple food consumed by the general public of the study area, having concentration levels 174.32.7 Bq kg-1 (wheat) and 27.61.4 Bq kg-1 (rice).The radioactivity levels of 40K were found to be slightly higher than that of 232Th and 226Ra at all the places of the study area.These raised levels of 40K is an indication of the fact that most of the area under study is fertile and fertilizers are being used copiously in large quantities to get good crops.
The average values of soil to plant transfer factors in the vegetation samples collected from the Rechna Doab were 0.06, 0.26 and 0.04 for 226Ra, 40K and 232Th respectively.In most of the collected vegetation samples, the transfer factors for different radionuclides were in the order: 40K>232Th>226Ra. Average 40K daily intake through the staple food consumed by the humans residing in the study area was 64.6 Bq day-1.The levels found in staple food of the study area were on lower side than the ICRP values and other global values.
Liquid scintillation counting system was used to determine the radioactivity levels of beta emitting radionuclide, 90Sr. Mean radioactivity levels of beta emitting anthropogenic radionuclide 90Sr in soil samples of the study area were 3.0 Bq kg-1 while it was 1.4 Bq kg-1 in vegetation samples.The levels of 90Sr in soil and vegetation have been compared with the same determinations in some European countries, USA and Ukraine and found less than these countries. Annual internal dose through ingestion of staple food was found to be 146 μSv y-1. The results of ingestion doses obtained were comparable with other countries of the world. Radium equivalent activity levels in three parts of the study area in north, mid and south were found to be 177.6, 189.9 and 190.8 Bq kg-1 while the absorbed dose rates in air were came out to be 85.09, 70.1 and 69.8 nGy h-1 respectively.Indoor radiation hazard index was determined as 0.60, 0.65 and 0.65 and out door radiation hazard index was 0.48, 0.51 and 0.52 while annual effective dose was 0.52, 0.43 and 0.43 mSv y-1.
Fatal cancer risk assessment was made on the basis of total external dose received to the population through soil and vegetation and internal dose received through ingestion of staple food.Fatal cancer risk to the population was found to be comparable in all parts of the study area.Health risks to the population of the Rechna Doab, Pakistan due to external and internal radiation doses were much smaller than the risks associated with other activities of daily life.On the basis of the present study, it is concluded that annual radiation doses received by population of the study area neither pose any significant radiological impact on human health nor contribute towards fatal cancer risk to the population.

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S. No. Chapter Title of the Chapters Page Size (KB)
1 0 CONTENTS

 

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2

1

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Environmental radioactivity
1.2 Measurement techniques
1.3 Motivation of study
1.4 Objectives of study
1.5 Thesis layout

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3 2 AREA UNDER STUDY AND SAMPLING

2.1 Area under study
2.2 Sampling of different environmental media
2.3 Sample processing
2.4 Conclusion

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4 3 GAMMA RADIOACTIVITY MEASUREMENTS

3.1 Gamma Spectrometry
3.2 Detector shielding
3.3 Analytical accuracy, IAEA standards
3.4 Counting uncertainties
3.5 Minimum Detectable Activity
3.6 Energy calibration
3.7 Peak efficiency calibration
3.8 Calculation of radioactivity per unit volume or mass
3.9 Analysis of natural and fallout radionuclides
3.10 Conclusion

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5 4 RADIOACTIVITY LEVELS IN SOIL, WATER, VEGETATION AND STAPLE FOOD

4.1 The Nature of Primordial Causes and their Functions in Eriugenian Cosmology
4.2 Fixed entities in Comparison with Primordial Causes
4.1 Radioactivity levels in soil media
4.2 Radioactivity in surface water
4.3 Soil-to-plant uptake of radionuclides
4.4 Radioactivity levels in staple food
4.5 Conclusion

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6 5 DETERMINATION OF STRONTIUM-90 IN DIFFERENT ENVIRONMENTAL MEDIA

5.1 Sample collection and pre-treatment
5.2 Radiochemical processing
5.3 Liquid scintillation counting
5.4 Results and discussion
5.5 Conclusion

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7 6 HEALTH RISKS AND RADIATION HAZARD ASSESSMENT

6.1 Hazards due to environmental radiation doses
6.2 Radiation hazards due to radionuclides present in soil
6.3 Radiation hazards due to radionuclides present in water
6.4 Radiation hazards due to radionuclides present in vegetation
6.5 Radiation hazards due to radionuclides present in staple food
6.6 Cancer risk assessment
6.7 Conclusion

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8 7 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

7.1 Conclusions
7.2 Recommendations for future studies

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REFERENCES

 

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