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Title of Thesis

Analysis of gender involvement in agricultural decision making and rural development: a case study of District Chakwal


Farhana Nosheen

Institute/University/Department Details
Department of Agricultural Extension / University of Agriculture, Faisalabad
Agricultural Extension
Number of Pages
Keywords (Extracted from title, table of contents and abstract of thesis)
Agricultural, District, Capabilities, Productivity, Entitlements, Involvement, Development, Analysis, Chakwal, Rural, Study, Decision, Gender

The Punjab province is the Pakistan’s most populous province which accommodated to the half population of the country.The Potohar region is located across the northern portion of the Punjab province, north of the salt range, between the Jhelum and Indus River. Agriculture sector in Pakistan is currently contributing 20.9 % of the national income and about 70 % of the country’s experts are directly and indirectly based on agriculture. Majority of the farmers in Potohar region own less than two hectors of agricultural land.Food and fodder securities are main concerns of agriculture in this tract where crop production is entirely depends upon the intensity and distribution of rain fall during the cropping seasons. Women, the half of humanity, have important roles in Potohar agriculture for food and fodder securities in the area.The females are administering home and social duties with the least help from males. Despite improvements in the women’s capabilities, gender gaps in entitlements and agricultural decision making continue to persist. Pakistan is no exception. Keeping in view the gender discrimination in decision making regarding to agriculture and rural development, a study on “Analysis of Gender Involvement in Agricultural Decision making and rural Development in Potohar region in Punjab province is envisaged. District Chakwal was selected as the universe of the research study. A snap shot survey research was conducted for collection of data. A well thought/conceived and pre-coded instrument of data collection (interview schedule) was applied in the field. Both analysis of quantitative data and qualitative information were combined to have most robust results.The result reveals that women are the most active in crop production and natural resource management.Their role in decision making process regarding to agricultural productivity is very limited. The factors like cultural values, personal ego, male dominance, social pressures, mobility problems, physical and social security are ground problems of females in decision making process.The final decision power on all issues lies with male household head. Therefore, it is recommended that labor intensive crops like vegetable farming, crop production technologies should be promoted in the area. Electronic media and NGOs’ counseling services will be useful in improving gender equality perceptions among males. Equal education and training opportunities should be provided to both males and females in order to improve the quality of farm operations and its recognition in male’s eyes.

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1,271 KB
S. No. Chapter Title of the Chapters Page Size (KB)


64 KB



1.1 Overview
1.2 Statement of the problems
1.3 Need for the study
1.4 Objectives
1.5 Assumptions
1.6 Limitations of study
1.7 Plan of the study

179 KB

2.1 Defining gender
2.2 Social status of women in Pakistani society
2.3 Sources of information
2.4 Gender role in household chores
2.5 Gender violence
2.6 Gender role in agriculture
2.7 Gender role in livestock farming
2.8 Role of agricultural extension in gender training
2.9 Women consultation in decision making
2.10 Gender role in water management 49
2.11 Gender role in post-harvest technology and food security
2.12 Women empowerment
2.13 Gender mainstreaming --- issues and problems
2.14 Addressing gender issues --- international efforts for Gender mainstreaming
2.15 Addressing gender issues in Pakistan: policies and Programs
2.16 Concluding remark

266 KB

3.1 Introduction to the study area
3.2 Research design
3.3 Research tool and Survey Instrument
3.4 Aspects to Improve the Quality of Data
3.5 Threats to Validity
3.6 Data Processing and Descriptive Analysis
3.7 Statistical tests
3.8 Focus group
3.9 The process of conducting focus groups’ interviews
3.10 Financial Support
3.11 Problems faced during data collection
3.12 Gender involvement in decision making process--- Theoretical Framework

 580 KB

4.1 Gender role(s) in agriculture, livestock, household chores and social matters related activities
4.2 Training needs related to agriculture, livestock, house chores and social matters related activities
4.3 Gender involvement in agricultural decision making and rural development
4.4 Gender specific source of information regarding home management and farm practices
4.5 Gender gap with reference to socioeconomic characteristics, education, share/contribution to home income and expenditure, nature and type of work performed, gender violence and access to resources
4.6 Opinion of respondents regarding the gender equality in all fields to life especially in non formal education (extension)
4.7 Problems of gender main streaming in agricultural decision making and extension work
4.8 Interpretation of focus groups’ interviews
4.9 Results and discussions of focus group
4.10 Concluding remarks

393 KB

5.1 Summary of literature review 165
5.2 Summary of research methods
5.3 Summary of main findings
5.4 Recommendations

175 KB

199 KB