Pakistan Research Repository Home

Title of Thesis

Implications Of The Socio-cultural Milieu Of The Society On Male Reproductive Health Behaviour In Punjab-pakistan


Yasir Nawaz

Institute/University/Department Details
Department Of Rural Sociology, Faculty Of Agri.economics And Rural Sociology / University Of Agriculture, Faisalabad
Rural Sociology
Number of Pages
Keywords (Extracted from title, table of contents and abstract of thesis)
Status, Involvement, Socio, Implications, Exposure, Religiosity, Reproductive, Milieu, Contraceptive, Cultural, Behaviour, Stress, Affairs, Health, Male, Drug, Relationship

In Pakistan, male involvement in reproductive health started long before the concept of a holistic approach emerged from ICPD in 1994. Men are far behind the knowledge about contraceptives, authority of decisions making, religiosity, exposure of media, health attitude, physical cost, Knowledge of HIV/STDs, drugs and family planning services.These circumstances have damaging-effect on men's reproductive health as well.The poor reproductive health of men in the entire Pakistan has been reported in many studies.The different national and international agencies have shown a great concern on this alarming situation of men's deteriorating reproductive health status.They have recommended to investigate the men reproductive health status in relation to different aspects. In this context the main objectives of this study is to identify and analyze different types of socio-cultural characteristics, affect the attitudes, lack of awareness of respondents toward reproductive health behaviour were examioned in Punjab-Pakistan.
A cross sectional study was conducted in 3-districts of Punjab province. One tehsils from each district selected randomly and sample of 272 men from Tehsil-1 i.e. Rawalpindi, 197 from Tehsil-2 i.e. Bahawalpur and 131 from Tehsil-3 i.e.Toba Tek Singh. From each Tehsil equal no. of respondents was selected from rural and urban areas by random sampling technique to explore the research objectives. In this way the total sample size will be 600. 300 from rural and 300 from urban areas. A well-structured questionnaire consisting of open ended and close ended questions has been prepared in the light of research objectives.Pre-testing was also in the study plan to examine the work-ability of questionnaire and to know the sensitive issues which can be tackled intelligently. Results: Bi-variate and multivariate analyses were used to explore the relationship between different terms MRHB.The results regarding age, age at marriage, duration of marriage, communication with wife, fertility preference, discussion about reproductive health problems, general health status, Knowledge about Contraceptive, Contraceptive use behaviour, knowledge about HIV/STDs of the respondents and their reproductive health behaviour were having there strong relationship and communication of affairs with wife having no relation and in multivariate analysis were used to build model and respondents age at marriage, duration of marriage, education, income, communication with wives, drugs using were highly significant and age of the respondent, communication of affairs, ideal number of children in a family were non-significant with MRHB..The value of adjusting R2 is 0.660 and it indicates that about 66% variation in the dependent variable is explained by knowledge about contraceptive and use of contraceptive, communication with wives, drug use, reproductive health problems, general health, knowledge about HIV, Media exposure.
Based on the research findings it is suggested that a general acceptance of contraceptive use, men along with women should be include in the target group as most of the decisions regarding family planning and contraception necessitate prior approval of male partners.Men shall be educate to give women all due rights especially their reproductive rights and involve them in reproductive and contraceptive decision making.Awareness should be created amongst male to give their women freedom of expression and let them join paid jobs, thereby making the family economically prosperous.Perceptions of the respondents were clear about family planning, awareness should be created against religious misconceptions and make it more convenient for the illiterates in the form of a packages deal. It would be more appropriate to tackle family planning campaign in the light of baby care and mother health along with strongly advocating improvement of economic conditions of the family. All income groups should be convinced to use contraceptives as an effective tool for family planning, more stress should be given on low and medium income groups, discourage the preferential gender treatment and involved their wives in all family matters.Primary health center (PHC) programs must be geared to meet men’s needs. Communication between spouses about RH should be developed through awareness. PHC service providers are mostly female, males should be inducted.

Download Full Thesis
1,564 KB
S. No. Chapter Title of the Chapters Page Size (KB)


30 KB



1.1 Introduction / Rationale
1.2 Need for the project
1.3 Objectives
1.4 Conceptual Framework
1.5 Hypothesis

160 KB

2.1 Introduction
2.2 Theoretical Frame Work
2.3 Reproductive Health Problem
2.4 Socio-Cultural & Demographic Factor
2.5 Family Planning
2.6 Early & Late Marriage
2.7 Conjugal Relations / Inter-Spousal Communication
2.8 Son Preferences
2.9 Extra Marital Relations
2.10 Sexual Behavior
2.11 Lack of Knowledge in Males/ Men are Uninformed About Fertility Control
2.12 Reproductive Health Services
2.13 Knowledge/Use of Contraceptives
2.14 Cultural /Normative Cost
2.15 Men’s Role & Responsibility
2.16 Knowledge of Reproductive Heath
2.17 Media
2.18 Family Planning & Sexual Behavior of Men
2.19 Men’s Role in Unintended Pregnancies
2.20 Role of Sexuality
2.22 Men’s Attitudes & Behavior
2.23 Violence
2.24 Reproductive behaviour in Gender context

300 KB

3.1 Introduction
3.2 Study Area at Glance
3.3 Research Design
3.4 Data Analysis
3.5 Conclusion

683 KB


189 KB

5.1 Introduction
5.2 Association between the age of the respondent and their reproductive health behaviour
5.3 Association between the age at marriage of the respondent and their reproductive health behaviour
5.4 Association between the duration marriage of the respondent and their reproductive health behaviour
5.5 Association between the education of the respondent and their reproductive health behaviour
5.6 Association between the income of the respondent and their reproductive health behaviour
5.7 Association between the communication with wife of the respondent and their reproductive health behaviour
5.8 Association between the communication of affairs with wife of the respondent and their reproductive health behaviour
5.9 Association between the Fertility preference of the respondent and their reproductive health behaviour
5.10 Association between the drugs using of the respondent and their reproductive health behaviour
5.11 Association between the Discussion about R.H problems of the respondent and their reproductive health behaviour
5.12 Association between the general health status of the respondent and their reproductive health behaviour
5.13 Association between Knowledge about contraceptive of the respondent and their reproductive health behaviour
5.14 Association between Contraceptive use behaviour of the respondent and their reproductive health behaviour
5.15 Association between Media and the reproductive health behaviour
5.16 Association between awareness about HIV/STDs with the reproductive health behaviour

156 KB

6.1 Multivariate regression analysis
6.2 Association between different independent variables of the respondents with the male reproductive health behaviour

115 KB

7.1 Summary , Conclusion and Recommendations
7.2 Conclusion
7.3 Recommendations

151 KB

157 KB