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Title of Thesis

Accumulation And Partitioning Of Cadmium, Zinc And Copper In Cereal And Legume Crops Under City Effluent Irrigation And Phosphorus Application

Author(s)

Amir Hussain

Institute/University/Department Details
Institute Of Soil & Environmental Sciences / University Of Agriculture, Faisalabad
Session
2010
Subject
Soil Science
Number of Pages
209
Keywords (Extracted from title, table of contents and abstract of thesis)
Crops, Decrease, Soils, Partitioning, Grains, Zinc, Permissibl, Accumulation, Application, Cadmium, Irrigation, Legume, City, Copper, Phosphorus

Abstract
A survey study was conducted in urban area of Faisalabad to compare concentration of Cd, Zn and Cu in cereal and legume crops irrigated with raw effluent, tubewell and canal waters.The results showed that there were significant variation in EC, pH and concentration Cd & Cu of effluents at sampling location due to different sources of effluent and their subsequent dilution in down stream. Raw effluent has 13, 2.5 and 4.5 times higher amount of Cd, Zn and Cu than canal water, but were within permissible limits for their use as irrigation water.No significant variations in irrigation quality parameters of canal and tubewell waters at differrent locations were observed. There were elevated levels of AB-DTPA extractable Cd, Zn and Cu in effluent irrigated soils over tubewell or canal irrigated soils but all metals were with in safe limits. About 70% of the metals were deposited in upper 30 cm soil surface. Chickpea, maize and mungbean were found maximum accumulators of Cd, Zn and Cu, respectively in grains while the order of Cd in shoot was mungbean > maize > chickpea > wheat. Highest concentration of Zn and Cu was in mungbean shoots. Mungbean roots accumulated the highest amount of Cd, while wheat accumulated Zn and Cu. Effluent irrigated chickpea grain accumulated Cd above permissible limit of WHO (0.20 mg kg-1) with mean concentration of 0.177 mg kg-1 while maize and mungbean followed chickpea. Green house study was conducted to investigate the effect of Cd in irrigation water on behavior of Cd, Zn and Cu in soil and their uptake by legume (chickpea, mungbean) and cereal (wheat, maize) crops. Wheat yield was not affected by the application of Cd in canal water up to 5 ppm. Application of Zn and Cu together gave the highest grain yield. Concentration of Cd increased in plant parts by increasing Cd level in irrigation water. The trend of Cu was not consistent but grain Cu was generally increased in chickpea and mungbean crops at the highest level of Cd. Higher levels of Cd in irrigation water also increased grain Cu in wheat. Chickpea yield was not affected by Cd or soil treatments and grain Zn was the highest with the combined application of Zn+Cu.Grain yields of wheat, maize and chickpea were not influenced statistically by Cd in irrigation water. However, yield of mungbean was stimulated with 1 mg L-1 of Cd. Grain Cd in wheat was the lowest with 60 mg kg-1 Zn treatment but not affected in chickpea grain. In general Zn treated soil tends to decreaseA survey study was conducted in urban area of Faisalabad to compare concentration of Cd, Zn and Cu in cereal and legume crops irrigated with raw effluent, tubewell and canal waters. The results showed that there were significant variation in EC, pH and concentration Cd & Cu of effluents at sampling location due to different sources of effluent and their subsequent dilution in down stream. Raw effluent has 13, 2.5 and 4.5 times higher amount of Cd, Zn and Cu than canal water, but were within permissible limits for their use as irrigation water. No significant variations in irrigation quality parameters of canal and tubewell waters at differrent locations were observed. There were elevated levels of AB-DTPA extractable Cd, Zn and Cu in effluent irrigated soils over tubewell or canal irrigated soils but all metals were with in safe limits. About 70% of the metals were deposited in upper 30 cm soil surface. Chickpea, maize and mungbean were found maximum accumulators of Cd, Zn and Cu, respectively in grains while the order of Cd in shoot was mungbean > maize > chickpea > wheat. Highest concentration of Zn and Cu was in mungbean shoots. Mungbean roots accumulated the highest amount of Cd, while wheat accumulated Zn and Cu. Effluent irrigated chickpea grain accumulated Cd above permissible limit of WHO (0.20 mg kg-1) with mean concentration of 0.177 mg kg-1 while maize and mungbean followed chickpea. Green house study was conducted to investigate the effect of Cd in irrigation water on behavior of Cd, Zn and Cu in soil and their uptake by legume (chickpea, mungbean) and cereal (wheat, maize) crops. Wheat yield was not affected by the application of Cd in canal water up to 5 ppm. Application of Zn and Cu together gave the highest grain yield. Concentration of Cd increased in plant parts by increasing Cd level in irrigation water. The trend of Cu was not consistent but grain Cu was generally increased in chickpea and mungbean crops at the highest level of Cd. Higher levels of Cd in irrigation water also increased grain Cu in wheat.Chickpea yield was not affected by Cd or soil treatments and grain Zn was the highest with the combined application of Zn+Cu. Grain yields of wheat, maize and chickpea were not influenced statistically by Cd in irrigation water. However, yield of mungbean was stimulated with 1 mg L-1 of Cd. Grain Cd in wheat was the lowest with 60 mg kg-1 Zn treatment but not affected in chickpea grain. In general Zn treated soil tends to decrease.

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S. No. Chapter Title of the Chapters Page Size (KB)
1 0 CONTENTS

 

 
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2

1

INTRODUCTION

 

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3 2 REVIEW OF LITERATURE

2.1 Cadmium, zinc and copper in soil-plant system
2.2 Health risks associated with effluent irrigation and heavy metals
2.3 Toxic effects of metal in plants
2.4 Bioavailability of metals
2.5 Effluent irrigation and environmental concern
2.6 Sewage system of Faisalabad
2.7 City effluent suitability and metal composition
2.8 Heavy metal buildup and distribution pattern in soils
2.9 Contamination limits for effluent irrigation water, soil and plants
2.10 Uptake of metals and their distribution in plant tissues
2.11 Cadmium effect on plant growth
2.12 Interaction of Cd with Zn and Cu in soil and plants
2.13 Effect of Cd on metal concentrations in plants
2.14 Influence of commercial fertilizer on metal behavior in soil and plants
2.15 Influence of N fertilizers on metal phyto-availability
2.16 Influence of P on sorption of Cd, Zn and Cu
2.17 Sorption in soils

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4 3 MATERIALS AND METHODS

3.1 Study 1: Comparison of metal contamination of soils and plants irrigated with city effluent, tubewell and canal waters
3.2 Study 2: Effect of cadmium in irrigation water on uptake of Cd, Zn and Cu by wheat, chickpea, maize and mungbean crops
3.3 Study 3: Effect of phosphorus on sorption of Cd, Zn and Cu in effluent irrigated soil
3.4 Study 4: Effect of phosphate fertilizer (DAP) on accumulation of Cd, Zn, Cu and P by grain and legume crops under raw effluent irrigation
3.5 Analytical procedure
3.6 Statistical Analysis

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5 4 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

4.1 Study 1: Comparison of metal contamination of soils and plants irrigated with city effluent, tubewell and canal waters
4.2 Study 2: Effect of cadmium in irrigation water on uptake of Cd, Zn and Cu by wheat, chickpea, maize and mungbean crops
4.3 Study 3: Effect of phosphorus on sorption of Cd, Zn and Cu in effluent irrigated soil
4.4 Study 4: Effect of phosphate fertilizer (DAP) on accumulation of Cd, Zn, Cu and P by grain and legume crops under raw effluent irrigation

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7 6 SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS

 

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8 7 LITERATURE CITED AND APPENDICES

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