Pakistan Research Repository

Accumulation And Partitioning Of Cadmium, Zinc And Copper In Cereal And Legume Crops Under City Effluent Irrigation And Phosphorus Application

Hussain, Amir (2010) Accumulation And Partitioning Of Cadmium, Zinc And Copper In Cereal And Legume Crops Under City Effluent Irrigation And Phosphorus Application. PhD thesis, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad .

[img]HTML
22Kb

Abstract

A survey study was conducted in urban area of Faisalabad to compare concentration of Cd, Zn and Cu in cereal and legume crops irrigated with raw effluent, tubewell and canal waters.The results showed that there were significant variation in EC, pH and concentration Cd & Cu of effluents at sampling location due to different sources of effluent and their subsequent dilution in down stream. Raw effluent has 13, 2.5 and 4.5 times higher amount of Cd, Zn and Cu than canal water, but were within permissible limits for their use as irrigation water.No significant variations in irrigation quality parameters of canal and tubewell waters at differrent locations were observed. There were elevated levels of AB-DTPA extractable Cd, Zn and Cu in effluent irrigated soils over tubewell or canal irrigated soils but all metals were with in safe limits. About 70% of the metals were deposited in upper 30 cm soil surface. Chickpea, maize and mungbean were found maximum accumulators of Cd, Zn and Cu, respectively in grains while the order of Cd in shoot was mungbean > maize > chickpea > wheat. Highest concentration of Zn and Cu was in mungbean shoots. Mungbean roots accumulated the highest amount of Cd, while wheat accumulated Zn and Cu. Effluent irrigated chickpea grain accumulated Cd above permissible limit of WHO (0.20 mg kg-1) with mean concentration of 0.177 mg kg-1 while maize and mungbean followed chickpea. Green house study was conducted to investigate the effect of Cd in irrigation water on behavior of Cd, Zn and Cu in soil and their uptake by legume (chickpea, mungbean) and cereal (wheat, maize) crops. Wheat yield was not affected by the application of Cd in canal water up to 5 ppm. Application of Zn and Cu together gave the highest grain yield. Concentration of Cd increased in plant parts by increasing Cd level in irrigation water. The trend of Cu was not consistent but grain Cu was generally increased in chickpea and mungbean crops at the highest level of Cd. Higher levels of Cd in irrigation water also increased grain Cu in wheat. Chickpea yield was not affected by Cd or soil treatments and grain Zn was the highest with the combined application of Zn+Cu.Grain yields of wheat, maize and chickpea were not influenced statistically by Cd in irrigation water. However, yield of mungbean was stimulated with 1 mg L-1 of Cd. Grain Cd in wheat was the lowest with 60 mg kg-1 Zn treatment but not affected in chickpea grain. In general Zn treated soil tends to decreaseA survey study was conducted in urban area of Faisalabad to compare concentration of Cd, Zn and Cu in cereal and legume crops irrigated with raw effluent, tubewell and canal waters. The results showed that there were significant variation in EC, pH and concentration Cd & Cu of effluents at sampling location due to different sources of effluent and their subsequent dilution in down stream. Raw effluent has 13, 2.5 and 4.5 times higher amount of Cd, Zn and Cu than canal water, but were within permissible limits for their use as irrigation water. No significant variations in irrigation quality parameters of canal and tubewell waters at differrent locations were observed. There were elevated levels of AB-DTPA extractable Cd, Zn and Cu in effluent irrigated soils over tubewell or canal irrigated soils but all metals were with in safe limits. About 70% of the metals were deposited in upper 30 cm soil surface. Chickpea, maize and mungbean were found maximum accumulators of Cd, Zn and Cu, respectively in grains while the order of Cd in shoot was mungbean > maize > chickpea > wheat. Highest concentration of Zn and Cu was in mungbean shoots. Mungbean roots accumulated the highest amount of Cd, while wheat accumulated Zn and Cu. Effluent irrigated chickpea grain accumulated Cd above permissible limit of WHO (0.20 mg kg-1) with mean concentration of 0.177 mg kg-1 while maize and mungbean followed chickpea. Green house study was conducted to investigate the effect of Cd in irrigation water on behavior of Cd, Zn and Cu in soil and their uptake by legume (chickpea, mungbean) and cereal (wheat, maize) crops. Wheat yield was not affected by the application of Cd in canal water up to 5 ppm. Application of Zn and Cu together gave the highest grain yield. Concentration of Cd increased in plant parts by increasing Cd level in irrigation water. The trend of Cu was not consistent but grain Cu was generally increased in chickpea and mungbean crops at the highest level of Cd. Higher levels of Cd in irrigation water also increased grain Cu in wheat.Chickpea yield was not affected by Cd or soil treatments and grain Zn was the highest with the combined application of Zn+Cu. Grain yields of wheat, maize and chickpea were not influenced statistically by Cd in irrigation water. However, yield of mungbean was stimulated with 1 mg L-1 of Cd. Grain Cd in wheat was the lowest with 60 mg kg-1 Zn treatment but not affected in chickpea grain. In general Zn treated soil tends to decrease.

Item Type:Thesis (PhD)
Uncontrolled Keywords:Crops, Decrease, Soils, Partitioning, Grains, Zinc, Permissibl, Accumulation, Application, Cadmium, Irrigation, Legume, City, Copper, Phosphorus
Subjects:Agriculture & Veterinary Sciences(a) > Agriculture(a1)
ID Code:7252
Deposited By:Mr. Javed Memon
Deposited On:21 Dec 2011 10:21
Last Modified:21 Dec 2011 10:21

Repository Staff Only: item control page