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Title of Thesis

Application Of Game-theoretic Techniques To Quantum Information Theory

Author(s)

Muhammad Ramzan

Institute/University/Department Details
Department of Physics / Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad
Session
2010
Subject
Physics
Number of Pages
158
Keywords (Extracted from title, table of contents and abstract of thesis)
Quantum, Generalization, Theoretic, Techniques, Relationship, Equilibrium, Game, Application, Information, Application, Reduction, Bimatrix, Unitary, Protocol, Operators

Abstract
This work is mainly based on quantum game-theoretic techniques and their application to quantum information theory.Quantum game theory is an important development in quantum computation and may have implications for quantum information and quantum communication.The e􀀞ect of quantum memory on quantum games have been studied.Three di􀀞erent games such as, Prisoner’s Dilemma, Battle of the Sexes and Chicken have been analyzed in the quantum domain. By considering the restricted game situation, it is shown that the e􀀞ects of quantum memory and decoherence become e􀀞ective in a maximally entangled case.For which the quantum player can out perform the classical player in all the three games. It is also shown that the quantum player enjoys an advantage over the classical player in Battle of the Sexes game for the amplitude-damping and the depolarizing channels.The quantum memory compensates the reduction in player’s payo􀀞s due to decoherence. It has no e􀀞ect on the Nash equilibria of the three games.
A generalization of two-player quantization scheme to a three-player Prisoner’s Dilemma game under the e􀀞ect of correlated noise is also presented.In a restricted game scenario, it is shown the quantum player is always better  for all values of the decoherence parameter  for the entire range of memory parameter.It is seen that for maximum degree of correlation, the game does not become noiseless and quantum player can still outscore the classical players for the entire range of the decoherence parameter 􀁳􀀾 producing an interesting result in comparison with a two-player quantum game.It is also shown that correlated noise has no e􀀞ect on the Nash equilibrium of the game.
By exploiting the three-player quantization scheme, we have studied the communication aspects of a three-player Prisoner’s Dilemma quantum game. It is shown that entanglement plays a dominant role in a three-player quantum game.On the basis of initial state and the measurement basis entanglement parameters, a relation among different payo􀀞s is established.It is investigated that the strategies of the players act as information carriers in quantum games. A relationship for the information shared among the parties is also established.
A scheme for quantum key distribution is proposed in which a secret key can be generated from the data coming through a partially entanglement breaking channel.This scheme is rather deterministic and e􀀡cient in the sense that two classical bits can be transferred per entangled pair of qubits.Furthermore, it is important to point out that, in this scheme, same symbol can be used for Eve’s detection and key generation. It is also worth noting that the eavesdropper, Eve, can be detected very easily from the disturbance of the elements of the decoding bimatrix. We have checked for the security of the scheme and found it secure against individual attacks.
It is further investigated that quantum games are useful in developing quantum cryptographic protocols.A multiparty quantum cryptographic protocol using tripartite entangled GHZ states is devised using game-theoretic techniques.In this protocol, two classical bits can be transferred per entangled pair of qubits to the communicating parties.Unitary operators applied by the sender on a tripartite entangled state encodes a classical symbol that can be decoded at receiver’s end with the help of a decoding matrix. In this protocol, if Eve interferes during the transmission, she can be detected by the disturbance of the decoding matrix. Our security analysis shows that this protocol is also secure against intercept/re-send attacks.

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S. No. Chapter Title of the Chapters Page Size (KB)
1 0 CONTENTS

 

 
41 KB
2

1

INTRODUCTION AND MOTIVATION

 

10
44 KB
3 2 GAMETHEORY

2.1 Introduction
2.2 Basic concepts of game theory
2.3 Representation of a game
2.4 Types of games
2.5 Nash equilibrium
2.6 Examples of classical games

14
98 KB
4 3 REVIEW OF QUANTUM MECHANICS

3.1 Introduction
3.2 Postulates of quantummechanics
3.3 Hilbert space
3.4 Qubit
3.5 Paulimatrices
3.6 Densitymatrix
3.7 Tensor product
3.8 Quantumoperations
3.9 Quantumentanglement

22
143 KB
5 4 QUANTUM GAMES

4.1 Introduction
4.2 What is a quantumgame
4.3 Meyer’s quantum penny flip game
4.4 Eisert et al. quantization scheme
4.5 Marinatto&Webber’s quantization scheme
4.6 QuantumRock-Scissors-Paper game
4.7 Quantummagic squares game
4.8 Multiplayer quantumgames
4.9 Experimental realization of quantumgames

33
114 KB
6 5 QUANTUM INFORMATION THEORY

5.1 Introduction
5.2 Quantuminformation
5.3 Quantumentropy
5.4 Kraus representation
5.5 Quantumchannels
5.6 Quantumdecoherence
5.7 Correlated noise
5.8 No-cloning theorem
5.9 Cryptography
5.10 Quantumcryptography
5.11 Eavesdropping

44
125 KB
7 6 THE EFFECT OF QUANTUM MEMORY ON QUANTUM GAMES

6.1 Introduction
6.2 Quantumchannels withmemory
6.3 Quantization in the presence ofmemory
6.4 Results and discussions
6.5 Summary

58
254 KB
8 7 CORRELATED NOISE E..ECTS IN A THREE-PLAYER PRISONER’S DILEMMA QUANTUM GAME

7.1 Introduction
7.2 Three-player Prisoner’sDilemma game
7.3 Time correlated dephasing channel
7.4 Quantization under correlated noise
7.5 Results&discussions
7.6 Summary

86
397 KB
9 8 CORRELATED NOISE E..ECTS IN A THREE-PLAYER PRISONER’S DILEMMA QUANTUM GAME

8.1 Introduction
8.2 Three-player quantization scheme
8.3 Communication scenario
8.4 Relationship between payo..s and information
8.5 Summary

101
144 KB
10 9 A SCHEME FOR QUANTUM KEY DISTRIBUTION THROUGH A PARTIALLY ENTANGLEMENT BREAKING CHANNEL

9.1 Introduction
9.2 Key distribution scheme
9.3 Security analysis
9.4 Summary

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144 KB
11 10 MULTIPARTY QUANTUM CRYPTOGRAPHIC PROTOCOL

10.1 Introduction
10.2 The protocol
10.3 Security analysis
10.4 Summary

126
144 KB
12 11 SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS

138
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13 12 BIBLIOGRAPHY

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67 KB