I= A HISTORICAL AND EVALUATIVE STUDY OF SPECIAL EDUCATION IN PAKISTAN
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Title of Thesis
A HISTORICAL AND EVALUATIVE STUDY OF SPECIAL EDUCATION IN PAKISTAN

Author(s)
Aqila Khatoon (Ali)
Institute/University/Department Details
University of Karachi
Session
2003
Subject
SPECIAL EDUCATION
Number of Pages
269
Keywords (Extracted from title, table of contents and abstract of thesis)
special education, special schools, teachers training programmes, vocational training, non-government organizations, national institute of special education, hearing impaired, visually impaired, mentally retarded, physically handicapped

Abstract
The development of special education network in historical perspective and the nature and quality of services being offered to special children in Pakistan has been studied and evaluated in this research work. The measures for improvement have also been recommended. To achieve this the various instruments were designed. The interviews of the special educators, support professionals, parents of special children and special persons were conducted. The records of the schools were consulted. The samples were taken from rural as well as urban areas of Pakistan and all the provinces.

The research work includes the analysis of historical pattern of development of special schools for all major categories of special children in Pakistan and the provinces. The separate graphs and charts showing trends and of development and distribution in each region )Pakistan as a whole, Punab, Sindh, Balochistan, North West Frontier Provinces and Federal Capital Area) and for each sector (Federal Government, Provincial Government and Non-government Sectors) and for each category (Hearing impaired, visually impaired, Mentally retarded and physically handicapped) are drawn. The analysis of population of special people and schools-age special children and the special children studying in schools has also been carried out.

The areas focused for investigating the weaknesses and strengths of the infrastructure include early intervention programmes, educational assessment and placement procedure, availability of special teachers and support professioanals, Special educational needs, system of examination and evaluation, teachers training programmes, mainreaming, provisions in government plicies and legislation.

The special schools system evolved in Pakistan as early as first decade of twentieth century however the schools are not in sufficient numbers to cater all the special children. The early intervention programmes in Pakistan are not very well organized The assessment procedures at schools have been discussed and tere is a great room for improvement. The assessment tools need to be standardized for which government support is required. The special needs including equipment and books are not available in sufficient quantity.

Most of the schools follow curriculum designed by committees comprising of teachers of special schools under the guidance of National Institute of Special Education. The instructional approaches and strategies are diversified which is common in all countries. The minimum qualification forany professional related to special education is not defined. The average students teacher ratio ranges from 6 to 1 in some categories of special children to 11 to 1 in the other which indicates the shortage of teachers. The parent involvement in the education of special children is the least. The vast majority of parents of special children of all categries and special persons are not fully satisfied with the education being given to their children.

The associations of the special people, specially visually impaired and hearing impaired and physically handicapped have played a pivotal role in changing the lives of the special people in Pakistan. The role of non-government organizations (NGO) is very significant in the development of special education in Pakistan.

The facilities to support higher education for special people in colleges and universities are not available. The mainstream schools do not have teachers and equipment to accommodate special children. The long term planning is required to mainstream special children. There will be financial implications also to implement any such scheme.

The teacher training programmes offered by universities and other institutions are quite satisfactory. The universities offer Diploma, Masters degree and Ph.D. programmes in special education. Many other non-government and government organizations offer in-service teacher training programmes. The policy for the Education and Rehabilitation of special children has not yet been finalized.

The vocational training being provided in most of the school is of pre-vocational nature. The trades are limited. The parents and special persons are not fully satisfied with the provisions of vocational training facilities. The attention of government is required to vamp this area.In the light of the above conclusions some recommendations are made as under:

Download Full Thesis
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S. No. Chapter Title of the Chapters Page Size (KB)
1 0 Contents
164.53 KB
2 1 Introduction 2
114.15 KB
3 2 Special Education in World perspective:Historical Development 10
213.28 KB
4 3 Quantitative Analysis 27
88.55 KB
5 4 Pattern of Development(1947-2000)
296.63 KB
6 5 Regional Distribution of Special Schools 48
208.41 KB
7 6 -Growth Rate of Special Schools 56
162.96 KB
8 7 Analysis of School age special children 67
54.97 KB
9 8 Ratio of Spl. Children to Ss for each category in each region 70
49.14 KB
10 9 Qualitative Analysis 7
91.51 KB
11 10 Early Intervention 80
98.18 KB
12 11 Educational assessment and placement 88
121.64 KB
13 12 Professionals and Classroom Environment 98
174.1 KB
14 13 Curriculum 111
399.33 KB
15 14 Special Educational Needs 143
127.67 KB
16 15 Examination and Evaluations System 153
158.52 KB
17 16 Teachers Training Programmes in Pakistan 165
118.48 KB
18 17 Mainstreaming 175
85.93 KB
19 18 Government Polices and Legislation 182
208.13 KB
20 19 Conclusion, Future Prospects & Recommendations 198-211
213.79 KB
21 20 Appendices 215
605.99 KB