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Title of Thesis

Establishing Protocols For The Propagation of Gladiolus


Noor-un-nisa Memon

Institute/University/Department Details
Institute Of Horticultural Sciences / University Of Agriculture, Faisalabad
Horticultural Sciences
Number of Pages
Keywords (Extracted from title, table of contents and abstract of thesis)
Proved, Gladiolus, Small, Production, Uniform, Investigate, Establishing, Cormel, Propagation, Protocols, Flower, Efficient, Molecular

The gladiolus industry is based on its flower and corm production; however its commercial cultivation is limited by low multiplication rate of corms. The present study was therefore intended establishing production protocol for the propagation of gladiolus by testifying and comparing conventional methods of propagation with advanced technology based methods like tissue culture. For the purpose corms of three commercially grown varieties viz. Traderhorn, White Friendship and Peter Pears were selected. In conventional methods, two experiments were conducted consecutively for two years i.e. 2006-07 and arranged in split plot design with three replications In first experiment different propagation techniques viz. whole corms of uniform size 12/14 cm (diameter 3.6-3.8 cm), simple half corms, half corms treated with activated charcoal, and removal of three leaves alone or along with flower spike were applied to explore the possibility of increasing propagation rates. Removal of three leaves with flower spike exhibited the best response in all three varieties producing the highest mean weight of single corm (65.40), total weight of corms (106.86 g), collective total weight of corms and cormels (136.59 g), more number of corms (1.79) and number of cormels (71.14) plant-1.
Another field experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of different corm sizes viz. small, (diameter 2.2-2.4 cm), mediu (diameter 2.7-3.0 cm) and large (diameter 3.2-3.5 cm) on the vegetative, floral and corm yield attributes of gladiolus. Large sized corms exhibited the best response in all three varieties producing the highest mean leaf breadth (3.04 cm), length of flowering spike (70.14 cm) and number of florets spike-1 (16.33) over those produced from small and medium sized ones, whereas plant height greatly decreased in response to large sized corms. Regarding corm and cormel production, large sized corms produced significantly higher mean weight of total corms (86.90 g), cormel weight (20.26 g), collective total weight of corms and cormels (107.17 g), number of corms (1.59) and number of cormels (49.16 g) plant-1. All obtained corms and cormels from both field experiments were graded on the basis of diameter into large as well as small sized corms when categorized according to the standards of North American Gladiolus Council.
In vitro propagation techniques by the use of different explants and media supplemented with various growth regulators were explored and optimized for mass production of cormels. The explants viz. nodal cultures from different stages of flower spike, cormels sizes/cormel sprouts of different sizes and cormel sections were used for direct regeneration, whereas, regeneration through callus phase was obtained from shoot tip of cormel and cormel slices. The heading stage of nodal cultures, large sized cormel, medium cormel sprouts and top section of the cormel were evaluated the best stage/size from each explant for efficient shoot regeneration on MS medium supplemented with BAP (2 or 4 mg L-1).
The shoot tip of cormel had more potential for callus induction as compared to cormel slices produced the highest mean callus initiation (87.78%) on MS medium supplemented with NAA (2 mg L-1) within 24.44 days. The regeneration of shoots from calli in shoot tip of cormel and cormel slices increased as the concentration of BAP increased from 2 to 4 mg L-1. The better response for rooting from the shoots of different explant source was observed on MS medium containing IBA (1 or 2 mg L-1) and sucrose (3 or 5%). Out of 4 explant sources used for rooting, cormel sprout proved the best explant in terms of more production of roots in all varieties.In in terms of productive rooting as compared to cormel slices.The cormel production rom each explant source was greatly affected by MS medium supplemented with IBA (1 mg L-1) and sucrose (5 or 7%). The cormel sprout and shoot tip of cormel were recorded the best explants for maximum cormel production. The size of the cormels produced through direct mode of regeneration was recorded more as compared to cormels produced through callus phase. The size enhancement studies of cormels were also conducted by using in vitro regenerated plantlets and placed on cormel induction media as well as in different compost media. The cormel size increased greatly in compost media as compared to cormel induction media having different plant growth regulators. The size enhancement and acclimatization of direct in virto regenerated plantlets was successfully achieved in gro green compost and coconut coir, where as the plantlets produced through callus phase couldn’t survive in all media.
The presence of somaclonal variation by using RAPD and ISSR molecular markers was detected among in vitro propagated cormels and had varying degree of variation from mother cormels in each variety of the gladiolus.

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S. No. Chapter Title of the Chapters Page Size (KB)


17 KB




19 KB

2.1 Conventional propagation
2.2 In vitro propagation
2.3 Clonal fidelity

150 KB

3.1 Conventional propagation
3.2 In vitro propagation
3.3 Clonal fidelity

97 KB



4.1 Conventional propagation
4.2 In vitro propagation
4.3 Economical analysis
4.4 Determining clonal fidelity

476 KB




34 KB




130 KB