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Title of Thesis

Women's Contribution to the family budget: Informal labour market in Pakistan- A case study of Bahawalpur District

Author(s)

Tasnim Kousar

Institute/University/Department Details
Department of Economics / Bahauddin Zakarya University, Multan
Session
2010
Subject
Economics
Number of Pages
293
Keywords (Extracted from title, table of contents and abstract of thesis)
Household, Facilities, District, Minimum, Labour, Informal, Family, Government, Budget, Wage, Womens, Contribution, Case

Abstract
The contribution of women working in informal sector has been on the agenda of national and international organizations for over two decades, but progress in measuring it has been slow. Collection of data, on the informal sector is an arduous task (in the past the sector has been considered immeasurable) especially for women.The definition of informal sector and its implication of data collection are also relevant. In this study we are concerned with women contribution in family budget. We have calculated the contribution of women in household budget. The typology of work in informal sector varies form region to region. We concluded that women involved in ladies dress-making are comparatively in higher ratio and contributing more. The ladies dress-making is a traditional profession of informally employed women of Bahawalpur. Applying OLS model on primary data from urban and rural areas of Bahawalpur, we have analyzed the determinants of contribution of women in household budget. It is found that married women, women as head of household, having assets, good health status and belonging to nuclear families are contributing more to their household budget.There exists also a positive relationship between the contribution of women and unemployed husbands, presence of infants in the household, the utilization of loan by household, and urban locality. The presence of school-age children, presence of adults (male and female), and husband’s educational status negatively affects the contribution. The determinants of contribution are different for urban and rural areas. It is proposed to intervene by government for education of informal sector women, provision of assets and loan, health facilities by public sector and implementation of minimum wage legislation in informal sector.

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2,288 KB
S. No. Chapter Title of the Chapters Page Size (KB)
1 0 CONTENTS

 

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1

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Informal Labor Market
1.2 Women in Informal Labor Market
1.3 Rural Women in Informal Sector
1.4 Plan of Study
1.5 Objectives of the Study

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3 2 SITUATION OF WOMEN IN PAKISTAN

2.1 Health Conditions of Women
2.2 Situation of Female Education in Pakistan
2.3 Women’s Employment
2.4 Aspirations of Women
2.5 Employment Situation of Women
2.6 Violence Against Women
2.7 Bonded Labor and Women
2.8 Reproductive Behavior of Women
2.9 Micro Credit for Women
2.10 Pakistan Labor Policies and Working Women

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4 3 REVIEW OF LITERATURE

3.1 Introduction
3.2 Mathematical description of the problem
3.3 Solution by homotopy analysismethod
3.4 Conclusion

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4

ECONOMICS OF WORKING WOMEN AND INFORMAL SECTOR

4.1 Decision-Making of Work
4.2 Gender Preferences for Work
4.3 Time Allocation for Work
4.4 Human Capital and Income Gap by Gender
4.5 Female Participation in Economic Activities: Trends
4.6 Female Participation in Labor Market in Pakistan
4.7 Female Participation in Informal Economy
4.8 Continuums of Informal Sector

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5

METHODOLOGY AND DATA COLLECTION

5.1 Model and Analysis of Data
5.2 Concepts and Definitions
5.3 Classification of informal Sector by Labor Categories
5.4 Development of Questionnaire
5.5 Sample Design and Data Collection
5.6 Mode of Survey
5.7 Variables
5.8 Limitations of the Study

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6

QUALITATIVE ESTIMATES OF WORKING WOMEN

6.1 Qualitative Estimates for Working Women
6.2 Socio-economic Profile of Households
6.3 Empowerment of Women
6.4 Age and Marital Status of Working Women
6.5 Income Level of Household
6.6 Educational Status of Working Women
6.7 Housing Conditions of Working Women
6.8 Fertility Behavior of Working Women
6.9 Typology of Work
6.10 Health Status of Working Women
6.11 Number of Hours of Work
6.12 Experience of Work
6.13 Mode of Employment
6.14 Contribution of Women in Household Budget
6.15 Contribution of Women by Age Group
6.16 Contribution of Women by Marital Status
6.17 Contribution of Women by Educational status
6.18 Contribution of Women and Fertility
6.19 Contribution of Women by Typology
6.20 Contribution of Women by Working Hours
6.21 Contribution of Women by Experience

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7

ROTATINGFLOW IN A CHANNEL OF LOWER STRETCHING WALL WITH HEAT TRANSFER

7.1 A generalized Ostrowski type inequality for a random variable whose probability density function belongs to L1[a; b]
7.2 A generalized Ostrowski type inequality for a random variable whose probability density function belongs to Lp[a; b]; p > 1
7.3 Conclusion

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8

HOUSEHOLD CHARACTERISTICS AND CONTRIBUTION OF WOMEN

8.1 Estimates of OLS Model
8.2 Husband’s Educational Status
8.3 Husband’s Employment Status
8.4 Husband’s Kind of Employment
8.5 Income of Head of Household
8.6 Household Size
8.7 Nuclear Status of Household
8.8 Number of Children and their Ages
8.9 Adult Members of the Household
8.10 Assets of the Household
8.11 Household Income
8.12 Household Per Capita Income
8.13 Loan Availed by the Household
8.14 Locality of the Household

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9

CONTRIBUTION OF WOMEN: RURAL URBAN DIFFERENCES

9.1 Rural Urban Socio-economic Differences
9.2 Quantitative and Econometric Estimates of Rural and Urban Areas
9.3 Rural Urban Analysis of Contribution of Women

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10

SUMMARY OF RESULTS AND POLICY RECOMMENDATIOIN

10.1 Summary of the Results
10.2 Policy Recommendations

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11

REFERENCES

 

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