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Title of Thesis

Effect of Demographic Factors and Teachers Competencies on the Achievement of Secondary School Students in the Punjab


Muhammad Akram Aziz

Institute/University/Department Details
Faculty of Education / Allama Iqbal Open University, Islamabad
Teacher Education
Number of Pages
Keywords (Extracted from title, table of contents and abstract of thesis)
Demographi, Effect, Punjab, Achievement, Testing, Factors, Analysis, Secondary, Students, Relationship, Environment, Work, Teachers, Competencies, Growth, Technique

The research focuses on the effect of demographic factors and teachers’ competencies on the achievement of Secondary School students in the Punjab.It was a survey based co relational study. The objectives of the study were: (a) To analyze the association of the demographic factors and the achievements of 10th class students. (b) To find the relationship between teachers’ competencies and achievement of the students at the secondary level. (c) To make suitable recommendations for the improvement of the achievement of secondary school students. The population of the study comprised: (i) Heads of public secondary schools both; boys and girls in the Punjab. (ii) all the secondary school teachers S.S.Ts. (iii) the students studying in 10th class (who have passed the 9th class examination from their Boards).
For choosing the sample, purposive/convenient sampling technique was used.The sample consisted of 30 male and 30 female secondary schools from urban and rural areas.The instruments used for data collection were three questionnaires and results of S.S.C examination 2007. 60 Heads, 300 secondary school teachers and 1500 students were taken as a sample.Three questionnaires, one for Heads of secondary schools, one for secondary school teachers and one for students studying in 10th class were developed on Likert Scale. Every questionnaire consisted of 50 items plus two open ended questions.These questionnaires were sent to the experts to refine the items. In order to validate the questionnaires, it was distributed among fifty male and female teachers,100 male and female students, and 10 Headmasters and Headmistresses of rural and urban secondary schools of district Bhakkar. After collecting the responses of the respective sample, the questionnaire was restructured for using on a large scale, on the basis of pilot testing.The researcher visited all the sampled secondary schools and collected the data.It was tabulated, analyzed and interpreted by using SPSS software version 16 for chi-square, Pearson’s correlation and T-test techniques.
The major conclusions of the study drawn from the analysis of data were:(i)Female students excelled from the male students.(ii)Students of urban secondary schools secured more positions in S.S.C examination 2007 than rural secondary schools in the Punjab.(iii) The number of students passed in the S.S.C annual examination 2007 of urban Secondary Schools was better than the rural Secondary Schools. (iv). Family size affected the achievement of the students. (v). Financial pressure left disappointing effects on the performance of hard up learners. (vi).The teachers who planned their lessons showed good results as compared to those who
did not plan.(vii) Those teachers who enlivened their lessons and through dignified teaching process inculcated the contents of lessons, exhibited promising results. (viii) The teachers who were good disciplinarians and their classroom management was up to the mark showed better results. (ix) Teaching experience was a good visible factor. That’s why the more experienced teachers recorded up to the mark results.(x) The teachers who carried out tests through recognized formative process were noted for their good results. (xi) The schools where, the Heads boosted confidence in teachers on their encouraging performance displayed good results. (xii). All the null hypotheses formulated for the study were rejected showing that the demographic factors and teachers’ competencies have significant relationship with the students’ achievement. The main recommendations of the research are: (i) The achievement of the students of urban areas at secondary level is directly linked with the performance of efficient teachers. Such competent teachers may be provided in the rural areas also. (ii). New awareness programs may be initiated in rural and urban areas to ascertain the population explosion. (iii). The poor students may be accommodated so that they may continue their education. (iv). The teachers may be imparted professional training of planning the overall classroom activities. (v)The teaching aids might be executed for pleasant working environment of the classrooms. (vi). Formative evaluation, especially in village schools is not being carried out.The result suffered due to the lack of this practice.The respective teachers may be bound to set the papers themselves. (viii).Teachers may be oriented with evaluation and measurement techniques. (ix). Progress reports may be updated. (x). Heads may be given residential accommodation in rural secondary schools so that the rest of the staff must be ensured to be there in time. (xi). The presence of teachers in the classrooms with full preparation may be ensured on part of the Head of the institution. (xii). Science teachers may be bound to carry out practicals in the laboratories. (xiii). The collaboration between the parents and teachers may be strengthened for better growth of the students.

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S. No. Chapter Title of the Chapters Page Size (KB)


10 KB



1.1 Statement of the problem
1.2 Objectives of the study
1.3 Significance of the study
1.4 Delimitations
1.5 Hypotheses
1.6 Methodology of the study

36 KB

2.1 Effect of demographic factors on school culture and climate
2.2 Demography and education: a two way relationship
2.3 Demographics of Pakistan
2.4 Demographic effects on Pakistani schools
2.5 Teacher’s responsibilities with Pakistani perspective
2.6 Gender equity
2.7 Gender issues
2.8 Women’s’ reorganization in Islam
2.9 Female education
2.10 Curtailments in female education in Pakistan
2.11 Secondary education in Pakistan
2.12 Objectives of Secondary Education
2.13 Problems of secondary education in rural areas
2.14 Mismanaged system of education in Pakistani secondary schools
2.15 Justifiable nexus of teacher and the taught
2.16 Paraphernalia of a progressive teacher
2.17 Expected competencies of the teachers
2.18 Lesson planning
2.19 Description of an ideal teacher
2.20 Classroom climate and interpersonal relations
2.21 Teacher’s quality and students’ achievement
2.22 Quality education and teacher competencies
2.23 Theoretical origins of teachers’ competencies

240 KB

3.1 Population
3.2 Sample
3.3 Research instrumentation
3.4 Justification of the questionnaire items with respect to each objective
3.5 Validation of tools
3.6 Data collection
3.7 Interpretation and data analysis

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5.1 Summary
5.2 Findings
5.3 Discussion
5.4 Conclusions
5.5 Recommendations

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2,385 KB