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Title of Thesis

Bio-ecology and management of mango mealybug (Drosicha mangiferae green) in mango orchards of Punjab, Pakistan

Author(s)

Haider Karar

Institute/University/Department Details
Faculty Of Agriculture / University Of Agriculture, Faisalabad
Session
2010
Subject
Agricultural Entomology
Number of Pages
211
Keywords (Extracted from title, table of contents and abstract of thesis)
Bioecology, Conducted, Mango, Irrigation, Punjab, Minimum, Orchards, Mealybug, Population, Drosicha, Chaunsa, Green, Cultivars, Mangiferae, Management

Abstract
The study was conducted on bio-ecology and management of mango mealybug Drosicha mangiferae (Green) in mango orchards of Punjab Pakistan from 2004 to 2008 in District Multan, Muzzaffar Garh, Bahawalpur and Rahim yar Khan. It was concluded from the growers’ survey that among various insect pest of mango, mango mealybug was found to be the major pest followed by hoppers, fruit fly, scales, mango leaf galls Amaraemyia spp. and midges. The farmers also reported that mango mealybug caused 25-100% loss. Further the respondents indicated that ‘Chaunsa’ cultivar was the most susceptible to mango mealybug followed by ‘Fajri’, ‘Langra’ and ‘Black Chaunsa, whereas ‘Dusehri’ was resistant. Irrigation was the major source of flare up of the pest as viewed by the majority of the respondents.The practices like hoeing, ploughing, irrigation, removal of weeds, grease bands and insecticides were adapted by the respondents with variable results. The satisfaction level for the control of mango mealybug was unsatisfactory. South, East, West directions of trees showed maximum population of mango mealybug on leaves and inflorescence, whereas North direction of the plant showed minimum population. The maximum peak population of mango mealybug was observed to be 26.63 per 30-cm branch at maximum temperature of 24.64C, minimum temperature of 10.36C and RH 78.86%. Among twelve cultivars under study, the ‘Chaunsa’ cultivar of mango showed maximum population of mango mealybug in both the study years (104.90 and 69.83 during 2005-2006 and during 2006-2007, respectively as well as on an average of both study years (87.38), whereas ‘Tukhmi’ cultivar was found comparatively resistant with minimum population of mango mealybug i.e. 14.20, 15.86 and 18.27. On an average of both the study years, the following ranking positions towards susceptibility of mango cultivars were as under. ‘Chaunsa’ > ‘Black Chaunsa’ > ‘Malda’ > ‘Fajri’ > ‘Ratul- 12’ > ‘Langra’ > ‘Sensation’ > ‘Sindhri’ > ‘Dusehri’ > ‘Sufaid Chaunsa’ > ‘Anwar Ratul’ and >‘Tukhmi’. All the chemical plant factors on leaves and inflorescence differed significantly among various cultivars of mango. Maximum carbohydrates contents was observed in the cultivar ‘Chaunsa’ (susceptible to the pest), whereas minimum carbohydrates
contents were observed in the cultivar ‘Tukhmi’ resistant to the pest. All the other factors did not show any specific sequence with the population of the pest in all the cultivars.The maximum decrease in number of fruits was recorded 11 percent on cultivar ‘Anwar Ratul’, whereas ‘Langra’ cultivar showed minimum decrease in number of fruits i.e., 3 percent over untreated trees (no control practices were applied with these trees to control mango mealybug at initial stage of the experiment). At final stage of the experiment the maximum decrease in fruits was 81 percent on cultivar ‘Chaunsa’ and minimum on cultivar ‘Tukhmi’ i.e., 22 percent. Maximum population recorded on ‘Chaunsa’ cultivar was 18/inflorescence and minimum on ‘Anwar Ratul’ was 10/inflorescence.A combination of mounds on the plastic sheet, Haider’s band and application of acetamiprid were found to be the most effective treatment resulted in 98% reduction of first instars of mango mealybug. It is further stated that the Haider’s band was the most effective and cheaper which was a new addition in the mechanical control management of mango mealybug on mango trees. The males of mango mealybug were attracted to mercury light and no males were attracted to yellow, green, red, blue lights. Male preferred to pupate in wet places near the ‘kacha’ (mud) water which can be exposed to sunlight by hoeing. This research project demonstrates the complete management programme for the control of mango mealybug under field condition for mango growers.

Download Full Thesis
1,641 KB
S. No. Chapter Title of the Chapters Page Size (KB)
1 0 CONTENTS

 

 
55 KB
2

1

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Agriculture in Pakistan
1.2 The importance of fruits to Pakistan
1.3 Importance of mango
1.4 Insect pest of mango

1
41 KB
3 2 REVIEW OF LITERATURE

2.1 Survey
2.2 Population Dynamics
2.3 Cultivar Resistance
2.4 Effect of host plant
2.5 Biology
2.6 Selectivity Studies
2.7 Sustainable management approach for the control of mango mealybug

4
80 KB
4 3 PROBLEM ORIENTATION STUDIES

3.1 Introduction
3.2 Materials and Methods
3.3 Results and Discussion
3.4 Discussion

12
135 KB
5

4

POPULATION DYNAMICS, CULTIVAR RESISTANCE AND BIOLOGY

4.1 Introduction
4.2 Materials and Methods
4.3 Results and Discussion
4.4 Discussion

31
283 KB
6

5

CULTIVAR RESISTANCE BASED ON BIOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS IN LEAVES AND INFLORESCENCE

5.1 Introduction
5.2 Materials and Methods
5.3 Results and Discussion
5.4 Discussion

71
165 KB
7

6

LOSSES IN MANGO YIELD CAUSED BY MANGO MEALYBUG

6.1 Introduction
6.2 Materials and Methods
6.3 Results and Discussion
6.4 Discussion

93
83 KB
8

7

SUSTAINABLE MANAGEMENT OF MANGO MEALYBUG ON MANGO TREES

7.1 Introduction
7.2 Materials and Methods
7.3 Results and Discussion
7.4 Discussion

102
312 KB
9

8

SUMMARY

8.1 Recommendations
8.2 Condition of the Pest and Recommended Practices
8.3 Precautionary Measures

149
367 KB
10

9

LITERATURE CITED AND APPENDICES

 

158
173 KB