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Bio-ecology and management of mango mealybug (Drosicha mangiferae green) in mango orchards of Punjab, Pakistan

Karar, Haider (2010) Bio-ecology and management of mango mealybug (Drosicha mangiferae green) in mango orchards of Punjab, Pakistan. PhD thesis, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad .

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Abstract

The study was conducted on bio-ecology and management of mango mealybug Drosicha mangiferae (Green) in mango orchards of Punjab Pakistan from 2004 to 2008 in District Multan, Muzzaffar Garh, Bahawalpur and Rahim yar Khan. It was concluded from the growers’ survey that among various insect pest of mango, mango mealybug was found to be the major pest followed by hoppers, fruit fly, scales, mango leaf galls Amaraemyia spp. and midges. The farmers also reported that mango mealybug caused 25-100% loss. Further the respondents indicated that ‘Chaunsa’ cultivar was the most susceptible to mango mealybug followed by ‘Fajri’, ‘Langra’ and ‘Black Chaunsa, whereas ‘Dusehri’ was resistant. Irrigation was the major source of flare up of the pest as viewed by the majority of the respondents.The practices like hoeing, ploughing, irrigation, removal of weeds, grease bands and insecticides were adapted by the respondents with variable results. The satisfaction level for the control of mango mealybug was unsatisfactory. South, East, West directions of trees showed maximum population of mango mealybug on leaves and inflorescence, whereas North direction of the plant showed minimum population. The maximum peak population of mango mealybug was observed to be 26.63 per 30-cm branch at maximum temperature of 24.64°C, minimum temperature of 10.36°C and RH 78.86%. Among twelve cultivars under study, the ‘Chaunsa’ cultivar of mango showed maximum population of mango mealybug in both the study years (104.90 and 69.83 during 2005-2006 and during 2006-2007, respectively as well as on an average of both study years (87.38), whereas ‘Tukhmi’ cultivar was found comparatively resistant with minimum population of mango mealybug i.e. 14.20, 15.86 and 18.27. On an average of both the study years, the following ranking positions towards susceptibility of mango cultivars were as under. ‘Chaunsa’ > ‘Black Chaunsa’ > ‘Malda’ > ‘Fajri’ > ‘Ratul- 12’ > ‘Langra’ > ‘Sensation’ > ‘Sindhri’ > ‘Dusehri’ > ‘Sufaid Chaunsa’ > ‘Anwar Ratul’ and >‘Tukhmi’. All the chemical plant factors on leaves and inflorescence differed significantly among various cultivars of mango. Maximum carbohydrates contents was observed in the cultivar ‘Chaunsa’ (susceptible to the pest), whereas minimum carbohydrates contents were observed in the cultivar ‘Tukhmi’ resistant to the pest. All the other factors did not show any specific sequence with the population of the pest in all the cultivars.The maximum decrease in number of fruits was recorded 11 percent on cultivar ‘Anwar Ratul’, whereas ‘Langra’ cultivar showed minimum decrease in number of fruits i.e., 3 percent over untreated trees (no control practices were applied with these trees to control mango mealybug at initial stage of the experiment). At final stage of the experiment the maximum decrease in fruits was 81 percent on cultivar ‘Chaunsa’ and minimum on cultivar ‘Tukhmi’ i.e., 22 percent. Maximum population recorded on ‘Chaunsa’ cultivar was 18/inflorescence and minimum on ‘Anwar Ratul’ was 10/inflorescence.A combination of mounds on the plastic sheet, Haider’s band and application of acetamiprid were found to be the most effective treatment resulted in 98% reduction of first instars of mango mealybug. It is further stated that the Haider’s band was the most effective and cheaper which was a new addition in the mechanical control management of mango mealybug on mango trees. The males of mango mealybug were attracted to mercury light and no males were attracted to yellow, green, red, blue lights. Male preferred to pupate in wet places near the ‘kacha’ (mud) water which can be exposed to sunlight by hoeing. This research project demonstrates the complete management programme for the control of mango mealybug under field condition for mango growers.

Item Type:Thesis (PhD)
Uncontrolled Keywords:Bioecology, Conducted, Mango, Irrigation, Punjab, Minimum, Orchards, Mealybug, Population, Drosicha, Chaunsa, Green, Cultivars, Mangiferae, Management
Subjects:Agriculture & Veterinary Sciences(a) > Agriculture(a1)
ID Code:6929
Deposited By:Mr. Javed Memon
Deposited On:12 Aug 2011 10:04
Last Modified:12 Aug 2011 10:04

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