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Title of Thesis

Attribution and Influence Perception of Success Among Male and Female Managers : A Perspective of Pakistani Private Sector Organizations.

Author(s)

Shazia Akhtar

Institute/University/Department Details
Faculty Of Advanced Integrated Studies And Research / National University Of Modern Languages, Islamabad
Session
2010
Subject
Human Resource Development
Number of Pages
315
Keywords (Extracted from title, table of contents and abstract of thesis)
Perspective, Directions, Male, Organizations, Sector, Attribution, Success, External,Factors, Female, Private, Among, Perception, Employees, Pakistani, Influence

Abstract
This study investigated whether people’s attribution for success and failure do reflect identifiable dimensions and whether or not these were compatible with those proposed by Weiner (1985, 2004) mainly internal and external locus of control. Moreover, it also looked at the perceived influence used by managers, mainly rationality, ingratiation and exchange maneuvers. It was hypothesized that success will be attributed more to internal factors like ability etc; whereas failure will be attributed to external factors like luck etc.The gender of the managers was believed to influence the attributions made, with males’ success and females’ failure attributed to internal causes. For influence perceptions, it was hypothesized that success will be attributed to the usage of ingratiation and exchange maneuvers as well as rationality maneuvers. As for the gender of the managers, it was hypothesized that males’ success will be assigned to the more frequent usage of rationality maneuvers, whereas the success of female managers will be assigned to the more frequent usage of ingratiation and exchange maneuvers. The design of the study was experimental and four hundred employees from the private sector organizations of Pakistan participated in this investigation. The overall design of this study was a 2(managers: most successful/least successful) X 2 (manager’s sex: male/female) X 2 (participants sex: male/female) between-subjects factorial. This means that this was a2x2x2 factorial design because three independent variables were examined: the managers’ success, the managers’ gender and the subjects’ gender all with two categories each. Data was gathered with the help of a self-report questionnaire with closed questions that included scaled items. MANOVA and ANOVA techniques were performed to test the hypotheses. The results revealed only partial acceptance of the hypotheses proposed. As predicted, success by a male was assigned to skill (internal), whereas the lack of career success in a female was attributed to lack of skill (internal). For influence
perceptions, male’s success was assigned to the more frequent use of rationalitymaneuvers compared to the other managers.The gender of the participants was not significant in the evaluations of the manager. Moreover limitations, future research, directions, and implications for organizations were also discussed.

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S. No. Chapter Title of the Chapters Page Size (KB)
1 0 CONTENTS

 

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1

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background of the Study
1.2 Overview of the Context
1.3 The Purpose of the Study
1.4 Problem Statement
1.5 Overview of the Theoretical Framework
1.6 Overview of the Research Methodology
1.7 Significance of the Study
1.8 The Structure of the Thesis

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3 2 REVIEW OF LITERATURE

2.1 Career Success
2.2 Attribution theories
2.3 Attribution: Some Primary Sources of Error
2.4 Dimensions of Causality
2.5 Attribution theory in the Organizational Context
2.6 Upward Influence Maneuvers
2.7 Tactics Typologies
2.8 Factors Affecting the Selection of Upward Influence Maneuvers
2.9 Influence Maneuvers and Human Resource Decisions
2.10 Effectiveness of Upward Influence Maneuvers
2.11 Influence Outcomes
2.12 Role of Gender in attributing Success
2.13 Gender and Influence Perceptions
2.14 Growing Importance of Private Sector Organizations
2.15 Summary

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4 3 THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK

3.1 The Theoretical Framework
3.2 General description of the Framework
3.3 Causality in Modeling
3.4 Proposed Relationship of Variables
3.5 Hypotheses
3.6 Summary

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THE RESEARCH METHODOLOGY AND DATA COLLECTION

4.1 Brief Overview of Research Objectives
4.2 An Overview of the Research Design
4.3 Research Methodology and Justification
4.4 Operational Definitions of Key Variables
4.5 The Validity and Reliability of the Research Instrument
4.6 Experimental Design
4.7 Research Sample and Site
4.8 Data Analyses
4.9 Limitations of the Research Method
4.10 Summary

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5

DATA ANALYSIS AND FINDINGS

5.1 The Demographic Profile of the Participants
5.2 The Demographic Profile of the Managers
5.3 One –Way Analysis of Variance and Chi-Square Tests
5.4 Basic Description of the Achieved Data Set
5.5 Overall Analysis of the Achieved Data
5.6 Hypotheses Testing– Attribution
5.7 Hypotheses Testing – Influence Perception
5.8 Discussion
5.9 Summary

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CONCLUSION

6.1 Key Findings
6.2 Implications of the Study
6.3 Limitations of the Study
6.4 Further Research/Recommendations
6.5 Summary

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REFERENCES AND APPENDIX

 

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