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Title of Thesis

Boron dynamics in alkaline calcareous soils and its availability under wheat-cotton cropping system


Abid Niaz

Institute/University/Department Details
Institute Of Soil And Environmental Sciences / University Of Agriculture, Faisalabad
Soil Science
Number of Pages
Keywords (Extracted from title, table of contents and abstract of thesis)
System, Cereal, Calcareous, Crop, Boron, Determine, Water, Under, Dynamics, Fractionation, Alkaline, Tillering, Cropping, Availability, Soils, Cotton

Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is the world’s leading cereal crop and is unanimously consumed as staple food product of almost hundred percent Pakistani nationals as well as about 1/3rd population of the world. Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) is an important cash crop of Pakistan but the yields of wheat and cotton in Pakistan have been stagnated throughout the preceding decade due to improper fertilizer management and nonexploitation of micronutrients specially boron. Boron (B) is extraordinary amongst the microelements in that an extremely diminutive amount is required for ordinary growth and maturity of plants, and simply somewhat greater B concentrations are toxic. A threeyear (2005-2008) study was initiated to determine the boron status of soils under wheatcotton system and also to assess the relationship between soil B and physico-chemical properties of soils. B content present in canal and tubewell waters being used by wheatcotton,were also assessed. The responses of cotton and wheat crops to foliar and soil applied B were also studied under field conditions. Almost all the soils were calcareous in nature (92 % area), alkaline in reaction (83 % area had pH > 8) and 100 % area had OM < 1 %. In case of soil B content, 82 % soils were deficient in B (0.10 to 0.45 μg g-1), 15 % were adequate (0.46 to 0.55 μg g-1) and only three samples were sufficient (0.56- 0.91 μg g-1). More B was observed in the fine textured soils (28 % area). Low B concentrations were observed in wheat and cotton plants. The average B concentrations during 2006 and 2007 in wheat leaves were 8.86 and 4.41 mg kg-1, and in cotton 37.78 and 15.83 mg kg-1. Mean B content in canal water was more during monsoon season (0.140.10 mg L-1) as compared to that during winter season (200.13 mg L-1), respectively. Whereas, B concentration was more in tubewell waters as compared to that in canal waters. B fractionation study revealed that the highest mean plant available B(0.320.12 mg kg-1) was obtained by hot water extraction followed by 0.05M HCl (0.310.12 mg kg-1), and 1:2 water extraction whereas the lowest B concentration was extracted by 0.005M DTPA. Total soil B content of all the soils varied from 15.61 to 152.80 mg kg-1 and it was further fractionated by using 0.05 M HCl (readily soluble B), 0.05 M KH2PO4 (exchangeable B), 0.02 M HNO3-H2O2 (extractable B), 0.25 M NH4-oxalate extractable B and the residual B. The highest mean B fraction was the residual fraction (70.50 mg kg-1) whereas the lowest was the water soluble B (0.33 mg kg-1). Field experiments were conducted at three different textured soils (loam, sandy clay loam and silt loam). Ten B treatments were applied to soil (0.00, 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1.00, 1.25, 1.50, 1.75, 2.00 and 3.00 kg B ha-1 at sowing along with recommended NPK fertilizers for cotton and wheat. Whereas five B levels (0.00, 0.25, 0.50, 0.75 and 1.00 kg ha-1) were used for foliar application in three replications in RCBD, while all other recommended nutrients for cotton and wheat were applied. Foliar sprays were performed on cotton before flowering, at flowering and at boll formation stages while on wheat before tillering, at booting and at milking stages. B application as soil and foliar sprays significantly increased the number of bolls, boll weight, lint, seed cotton, dry matter yield, lint percent, leaf B concentration and total B uptake. Foliar use of B (0.50 kg B ha-1) increased the seed cotton yield by 25.60 % over control on loamy soil followed by that on silt loam soil (23.80 %), however during the next year (2007), seed cotton yield mildly decreased compared to first year at the same B application level of 0.50 kg B ha-1 but it remained significantly higher than control by 8 and 21.50 % at loam and silt loam soil(23.80 %), respectively. Likewise, wheat crop significantly responded to B application both as soil and foliar in terms of grain and straw yields, number of grains spike-1, 1000- grain weight, plant height, plant B concentration and total B uptake while it had nonsignificant effects on tillering and protein content. B application improved the grain yield by around 6, 9.60 and 6 % at B application levels of 0.50, 0.75 and 1 kg ha-1, respectively. Finally, the residual or carry-over study revealed significant responses of wheat crop to residual B applied to previous cotton crop. Residual B significantly improved the grain and straw yields, number of grains spike-1, 1000-grain weight, plant height, plant B concentration and total B uptake and protein content of wheat. he highest and the lowest protein content of 14.54 and 11.17 % were obtained with residual B levels of 1.50 and 3 kg ha-1, respectively.

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S. No. Chapter Title of the Chapters Page Size (KB)


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2.1 Natural Physico chemical properties of boron (B)
2.2 Prevalent B uses and environmental impacts of B
2.3 Role of B in animal and human nutrition
2.4 Boron in water and food sources
2.5 Worldwide boron status of soils
2.6 Factors affecting B availability in soil
2.7 Processes of B-adsorption in soils
2.8 Boron fractions present in soils
2.9 Reactions and chemistry of B in soil
2.10 Role of B in plant functions
2.11 Role of B in plant cell wall
2.12 Role of B in cell division
2.13 Effect of B on plasma membranes
2.14 B responsibility in ion fluxes
2.15 Effect of B in phenol metabolism
2.16 Role of B in N-fixation
2.17 Role of B in plant reproductive growth
2.18 Boron mobility in plants and its role in plant physiology
2.19 Toxicity in different crops due to boron
2.20 Boron toxicity symptoms
2.21 Techniques/methods of B determination in soils and plant
2.22 Crop responses to boron
2.23 Cotton responses to boron application
2.24 Responses of wheat to B application
2.25 Sources of boron
2.26 Carryover or residual influences of boron applied to soil

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3.1 Boron status of soils under wheat–cotton cropping system as influenced by soil pH, organic matter, calcium carbonate (CaCO3) and soil texture
3.2 Boron content in canal and ground water samples collected from wheat-cotton growing areas of Punjab
3.3 Field Studies
3.4 Laboratory Study

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4.1 Boron status of soils under wheat–cotton system as influenced by soil pH,organic matter, calcium carbonate (CaCO3) and texture
4.2 Boron content in canal and ground water samples collected from wheatcotton growing areas of P
4.3 Boron fractionation in alkaline calcareous soil of Pakistan by using different extractants and its application under wheat-cotton cropping system
4.4 Effect of boron application on growth and yield of cotton in calcareous soils
4.5 Foliar B application on cotton sown under alkaline calcareous soils
4.6 Effect of boron application on growth and yield of wheat in calcareous soils
4.7 Effect of foliar boron on wheat in high pH and calcareous soils
4.8 Residual effect of B applied to previous cotton on wheat

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