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Title of Thesis

Evaluation of hypertonic saline solution in the treatment of haemorrhagic septicaemia, calf scour and other clinical conditions of livestock characterized by hypovolaemia/endotoxaemia

Author(s)

Muhammad Arif Zafar

Institute/University/Department Details
Department Of Clinical Medicine And Surgery, Faculty Of Veterinary Science / University Of Agriculture, Faisalabad
Session
2010
Subject
Veterinary Clinical Medicine & Surgery
Number of Pages
171
Keywords (Extracted from title, table of contents and abstract of thesis)
Conditions, Evaluation, Treatment, Hypertonic, Scour, Buffalo, Parameters, Pressure, Concentration, Hypovolaemia, Clinical, Evaluation, Septicaemia, Points, Characterized, Saline, Solution, Endotoxaemia

Abstract
This study was conducted for the evaluation of hypertonic saline solution in haemorrhagic septicaemia (HS) in buffaloes, calf scour in buffalo calves and other clinical conditions of livestock characterized by hypovolaemia and/or endotoxaemia including spontaneous cases of calf scour, dehydrated diarrhoeic goats and buffaloes. For this purpose, 50buffaloes were selected from the field suffering from HS. The disease was diagnosed on the basis of clinical signs. Then theses animals were randomly divided into two equal groups (A and B).Buffaloes of group A were treated with the conventional treatment already in vogue i.e. ceftiofur HCl and flunixin meglumine @ 6 mg/kg and 2 mg/kg BW, IM and IV, respectively. Group B was treated with intravenous infusion of hypertonic saline solution (HSS) @ 4 mL/kg BW followed by isotonic saline solution @ 10 mL/kg BW along with ceftiofur HCl and flunixin meglumine. For evaluation of HSS in calf scour, neonatal diarrhoea in buffalo calves (n=24) was induced through oral administration of 2 mL broth culture of having eneteropathogenic E. coli count of 1010 CFU. To evaluate the efficacy of HSS in clinical conditions of livestock,spontaneous cases of calf scour (n=24), dehydrated diarrhoeic goats (n=24) and buffaloes (n=24) were studied. In all these conditions, the animals were randomly divided into two equal groups viz. A and B (n=12 each). Group A was treated with isotonic (90 mL/kg BW) and group B with hypertonic (4 mL/kg BW) saline solutions along with ceftiofur HCl and flunixin meglumine (6 and 2 mg/kg BW, respectively). The efficacy of treatment was evaluated on the basis of clinical parameters, haematological analysis, haemodynamic parameters, blood gas analysis, serum electrolytes and serum biochemical profiles. These all evaluation parameters were recorded at baseline (during disease), t=1, t=3, t=6, t=12, t=24 and t=36 hours after treatment. However, for induced calf scour, the additional recording time point was before induction of diarrhoea which acted as baseline; other recording time points being the same as for other conditions studied.Hypertonic saline infusion to the buffaloes of group B suffering from HS showed significantly higher survival rate of 80% and differed significantly (P < 0.05) from group A in which survival rate was 52%. Group B significantly (P < 0.05) improved heart rate,mean arterial pressure,central venous pressure,haematocrit and haemoglobin concentration,partial pressure of arterial oxygen, blood pH and total serum protein. Hypertonic infusion increased serum sodium and chloride ions concentration but the changes were not of sufficient magnitude to be of risk to the buffaloes. Hypertonic saline solution (group B) resuscitated buffalo calves from neonatal diarrhoea (either induced or spontaneous) more rapidly and effectively than isotonic saline solution (group A) and showed significant (P < 0.05) improvement in all the parameters studied. The resuscitation of diarrhoeic dehydrated goats (n=24) and buffaloes (n=24) through administering hypertonic saline solution was evaluated. Both treatment protocols helped in recovering the normal values of all the parameters studied within experimental period. But hypertonic saline solution showed significant differences (P < 0.05) over group A in heart rate,mean arterial pressure, central venous pressure, partial pressure of arterial oxygen, blood pH and bicarbonates in diarrhoeic goats. In diarrhoeic buffaloes, HSS infusion only showed significant difference (P < 0.05) over group A in partial pressure of venous oxygen, while other parameters were recovered to normal without any statistical difference. On the basis of findings of this study, it was concluded that hypertonic saline solution can be safely administered to the buffaloes suffering from haemorrhagic septicaemia and buffalo calves with neonatal diarrhoea.It offset deleterious haemodynamic effects of endotoxins, thus ameliorates the septic shock more effectively than does antibiotic therapy alone in HS. In addition to rapid and effective, intravenous administration of a small volume of HSS provides a practical and economical method to resuscitate dehydrated calves with neonatal diarrhoea, diarrhoeic goats and buffaloes,thus make it suitable for field use.

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S. No. Chapter Title of the Chapters Page Size (KB)
1 0 CONTENTS

 

 
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2

1

INTRODUCTION

 

1
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3 2 REVIEW OF LITERATURE 5
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4 3 MATERIALS AND METHODS

 

21
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5 4 RESULTS

 

37
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6 5 DISCUSSION

 

118
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7 6 SUMMARY

 

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REFERENCES

 

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