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Title of Thesis

Improvement In Production And Storage Of Trichogramma Chilonis (ishii), Chrysoperla Carnea (stephens) And Their Hosts For Effective Field Releases Against Major Insect Pests Of Cotton

Author(s)

Sajid Nadeem

Institute/University/Department Details
Department Of Agri Entomology, Faculty Of Agriculture / University Of Agriculture, Faisalabad
Session
2010
Subject
Agricultural Entomology
Number of Pages
210
Keywords (Extracted from title, table of contents and abstract of thesis)
Improvement, Trichogramma, Chrysoperla, Experiments, Parasitism, Reproductive, Sorghum, Chilonis, Carnea, Helicoverpa, Unfavorable, Survival, Comparatively, Effective, Insect, Cotton, Field, Pests

Abstract
Present studies were conducted to improve production and storage extension of Trichogramma chilonis (Ishii), Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens) and their hosts for effective field releases against major insect pests of cotton. Different experiments comprised; the rearing of laboratory host, Sitotroga cerealella (Olivier), the impact of radiation on the shelf life extension of its eggs, storage of parasitoid (T. chilonis) and predator (C. carnea) at low temperatures, the searching ability of parasitoid under field conditions, evaluation of the field releases methods for parasitoid and predator and their field adaptations and effectiveness against target pests in the cotton.
Development and evaluation of the rearing of S. cerealella on its naturally available cereal foods, like maize, barley, sorghum and wheat revealed that the rearing of S. cerealella was as equally good on sorghum and barley as compared to wheat grains. Whenever, the rearing of healthy and heavy sized adults were required, the rearing on maize showed good results but with reduced fecundity and prolonged life span. The parasitism by T. chilonis on the gamma irradiated eggs of S. cerealella was successfully
achieved at the dose of 50 Gy up to 7 days. The cumulative effect of radiation and low temperatures on the storage of host eggs at 6, 8, 10, 12, 14 and 16oC from 5 to 90 days showed non-significant effect as compared to their individual effects. Storage of host, S.cerealella eggs at 6oC for 5 to 50 days was a comparatively more suitable for both short and long durations, however, host eggs stored at 10, 12, 14 and 16oC proved good only for short term duration. Storage of the parasitoid, T. chilonis at a temperature of 10oC,proved to be effective for highest percent emergence, percent parasitism and adult longevity. Among different concentrations of honey as adult food, its 10% solution showed best results for male and female longevity and other biological parameters,however, reduced longevity was observed with increased in concentration of honey solution. The optimum rearing temperature for T. chilonis was found to be 28oC at which developmental period was optimal; parasitism, adult longevity and emergence of T.chilonis from host eggs were higher as compared to other temperatures. Storage temperature of 8oC seemed to be optimum for C. carnea eggs for 20 days with minimum detrimental effects on developing embryo inside the egg. This temperature (10oC) was almost good for short term (20 days) and long term (40 days) storage durations.Moreover, reproductive parameters of C. carnea adults remained good up to 90 days storage of eggs at this temperature. The impact of different rearing temperatures on the developmental and reproductive parameters of C. carnea proved best at 25oC. Host eggs of Plodia interpunctella and S. cerealella showed no differences upon the quality of developmental traits of T. chilonis and C. carnea, and both hosts showed comparable results for rearing.
Evaluation of the field releases of parasitoid T. chilonis, through different methods inferred that micro-cages not only increased the releases and parasitism but also protected the parasitoids from unfavorable environmental conditions. Evaluation of C. carnea releases in the field showed that the releases of larvae were having more survival as compared to the releases in egg form. Therefore, it is suggested that predator should be released in the larval form to get more consistent field results. Parasitism by T. chilonis on host eggs at different distances under the field conditions revealed that the searching ability and parasitism were gradually decreased as the distance increased from the place of release.Survival of T. chilonis and C. carnea under field conditions varied according to the prevailing environment of the field. Comparative evaluation of the bio-control agents (T. chilonis and C. carnea) in management of Helicoverpa armigera, Earias vittella, Bemisia tabaci, Thrips tabaci and Aphis gossypii in cotton under natural field conditions during the years 2007 and 2008 exhibited that integration of bio-control agents, enhanced the suppression of these pests as compared to the untreated control.

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S. No. Chapter Title of the Chapters Page Size (KB)
1 0 CONTENTS

 

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2

1

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Overview of cotton
1.2 Insect pests of cotton
1.3 Pest control strategies in cotton
1.4 Biological control
1.5 Biological control agents
1.6 Objective of the studies

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3 2 REVIEW OF LITERATURE

2.1 Sitotroga cerealella (Olivier) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae)
2.2 Trichogramma chilonis (Ishii) (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae)
2.3 Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens) (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae)

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4 3 MATERIALS AND METHODS

3.1 Selection of Trichogramma chilonis, Chrysoperla carnea and Sitotroga cerealella strains
3.2 Rearing of Sitotroga cerealella on different hosts
3.3 Effect of radiation on eggs of host, Sitotroga cerealella
3.4 Development of Trichogramma chilonis on stored eggs of host, Sitotroga cerealella
3.5 Effect of radiation and low temperatures on eggs of host, Sitotroga cerealella
3.6 Effect of adult food nutrition on development of Trichogramma chilonis
3.7 Optimization of short and long term storage duration for Trichogramma chilonis at low temperatures
3.8 Comparative rearing of Trichogramma chilonis at different temperature conditions
3.9 Effect of storage duration and low temperatures on developmental parameters of eggs of Chrysoperla carnea
3.10 Effect of storage duration and temperature on reproductive parameters of the adult of Chrysoperla carnea at different temperature conditions
3.11 Effect of different rearing temperatures on developmental and reproductive parameters of Chrysoperla carnea
3.12 Effect of different host eggs on quality of developmental parameters of Trichogramma chilonis
3.13 Effect of different host eggs on quality of developmental parameters of Chrysoperla carnea
3.14 Evaluation of different releases methods of Trichogramma chilonis under field conditions
3.15 Evaluation of Chrysoperla carnea releases under natural field condition
3.16 Parasitism and searching ability of Trichogramma chilonis on host eggs at different distances
3.17 Survival of Trichogramma chilonis under field conditions
3.18 Survival of Chrysoperla carnea under field conditions
3.19 Comparative evaluation of bio-control agents in management of cotton pests under field conditions
3.20 Data analysis

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5 4 RESULTS

4.1 Selection of Trichogramma chilonis, Chrysoperla carnea and Sitotroga cerealella strains
4.2 Rearing of Sitotroga cerealella on different hosts
4.3 Effect of radiation on the eggs of host, Sitotroga cerealella
4.4 Development of Trichogramma chilonis on stored eggs of host, Sitotroga cerealella
4.5 Effect of radiation and low temperatures on eggs of host, Sitotroga cerealella.
4.6 Effect of adult food nutrition on development of Trichogramma chilonis
4.7 Optimization of short and long term storage duration for Trichogramma chilonis at low temperatures
4.8 Comparative rearing of Trichogramma chilonis at different temperature conditions
4.9 Effect of storage duration and low temperatures on developmental parameters of eggs of Chrysoperla carnea
4.10 Effect of storage duration and temperature on reproductive parameters of the adult of Chrysoperla carnea at different temperature conditions
4.11 Effect of different rearing temperatures on developmental and reproductive parameters of Chrysoperla carnea
4.12 Effect of different host eggs on quality of developmental parameters of Trichogramma chilonis
4.13 Effect of different host eggs on quality of developmental parameters of Chrysoperla carnea
4.14 Evaluation of different releases methods of Trichogramma chilonis under field conditions
4.15 Evaluation of Chrysoperla carnea releases under natural field condition
4.16 Parasitism and searching ability of Trichogramma chilonis on host eggs at different distances
4.17 Survival of Trichogramma chilonis under field conditions
4.18 Survival of Chrysoperla carnea under field conditions
4.19 Comparative evaluation of bio-control agents in management of cotton pests under field conditions

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6 5 DISCUSSION

5.1 Selection of Trichogramma chilonis, Chrysoperla carnea and Sitotroga cerealella strains
5.2 Rearing of Sitotroga cerealella on different hosts
5.3 Effect of radiation on eggs of host, Sitotroga cerealella
5.4 Development of Trichogramma chilonis on stored eggs of host, Sitotroga cerealella
5.5 Effect of radiation and low temperatures on eggs of host, Sitotroga cerealella
5.6 Effect of adult food nutrition on development of Trichogramma chilonis
5.7 Optimization of short and long term storage duration for Trichogramma chilonis at low temperatures
5.8 Comparative rearing of Trichogramma chilonis at different temperature conditions
5.9 Effect of storage duration and low temperatures on developmental parameters of eggs of Chrysoperla carnea
5.10 Effect of storage duration and temperature on reproductive parameters of the adult of Chrysoperla carnea at different temperature conditions
5.11 Effect of different rearing temperatures on developmental and reproductive parameters of Chrysoperla carnea
5.12 Effect of different host eggs on quality of developmental parameters of Trichogramma chilonis
5.13 Effect of different host eggs on quality of developmental parameters of Chrysoperla carnea
5.14 Evaluation of different releases methods of Trichogramma chilonis under field conditions
5.15 Evaluation of Chrysoperla carnea releases under natural field condition
5.16 Parasitism and searching ability of Trichogramma chilonis on host eggs at different distances
5.17 Survival of Trichogramma chilonis under field conditions
5.18 Survival of Chrysoperla carnea under field conditions
5.19 Comparative evaluation of bio-control agents in management of cotton pests under field conditions

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7 6 SUMMARY

 

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LITERATURE CITED AND APPENDICES

 

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