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BIOCHEMICAL STUDIES OF ALGAE FROM INLAND WATERS OF BALOCHISTAN

Mudassir, Israr (1995) BIOCHEMICAL STUDIES OF ALGAE FROM INLAND WATERS OF BALOCHISTAN. PhD thesis, University of Balochistan, Quetta.

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Abstract

Increase in human population and limited sources of food, compelled the scientists to investigate new sources for food. The present study comprises of ecological, biochemical and chemical studies on fresh water algae of Balochistan. The composition and seasonal distribution of fresh water algae collected from twenty localities of Balochistan were investigated. 729 species with 120 genera were identified. These belonged to five divisions of algae species showed a distinct seasonal pattern. Water samples were analyzed for their chemical characteristics and for the levels of radioactivity. The correlation of these chemicals with the algal flora has been established. Among the dominant algae four species were selected for the biochemical and chemical studies namely Chara vulgaris Linneaus, Cladophorafracta (Dillw) Kutz. Spirogyra weberi Kutz..,belonged to green algae while Oscillatoria subbrevis Schmidle, belonged to blue green algae. The ash content, lipids, carbohydrates, proteins and inorganic elemental composition of these algae were determined. Significantly high ash, lipids, carbohydrates and protein were found in Spirogyra weberi which proved it, to be a good source of food. These content were high in green algae than those found in blue green algae. A variety of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, hydrocarbons, terpene and sterols have been reported for the first time from these algae. These were identified quantitatively and qualitatively through different spectroscopic techniques including EI, HR-MS, GC-MS, IHNMR, 1HNMR and 13CNMR and 2D experiments. Quantitative and qualititative micro, macroelements and heavy metal concentration of these four algae were analyzed. Significantly high calcium content were found in these algae as compare to other elements. Antifungal activity of the ethanolic algal extracts was carried out against ten fungal strains. Chara vulgaris, Cladophora fracta and Oscillatoria subbrevis exhibit strong antifungal activity, while Spirogyra weberi showed no activity against any of the fungi tested. The antibacterial activity of the four ethanolic algal extracts has been carried out in vitro against gram positive and gram negative bacteria. The algal extracts showed no antibacterial activity against these bacteria. Brine shrimp toxicity test was carried out on all the four crude ethanolic algal extracts. No toxicity was found in any algae. Allelopathic effects of these algal extracts were tested towards the Pennisetun seeds. It was found that C. vulgaris, C. fracta and S. weberi inhibit the growth' of Pennisetun seeds at very high concentration. O. subbrevis was found to be growth promoter at al concentrations. The dried four algae were baked in bread and fed to wistar rats, their growth and weight were observed. The rats fed with S. weberi showed good growth and attained a significant increase in body weight with reference to control rats. The hypotensive and hypertensive pharmacological activity of all algal extracts were carried out on wistar rats C. vulgaris and C. fracta lowered the blood pressure, respiratory and heart rate by 30%, while other two algae were found to be ineffective.

Item Type:Thesis (PhD)
Uncontrolled Keywords:Biochemical Studies, Algae, Fresh water algae, Algal flora, Chara vulgaris Linneaus, Cladophora fracta (Dillw) Kutz, Spirogyra webri Kutz, Oscillatoria subbrevis Suchmidle, Ash content, Lipids, Carbohydrates, Proteins, Inorganic elemental composition, Fatty acid, Hydrocarbons, Terpene, Sterols, Pennisetum.
Subjects:Physical Sciences (f) > Chemistry(f2) > Biochemistry(f2.1)
ID Code:689
Deposited By:Mr. Muhammad Asif
Deposited On:22 Sep 2006
Last Modified:04 Oct 2007 21:02

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