Pakistan Research Repository


Hammad, Suleiman (2002) METHODOLOGY OF EVALUATION IN HOLY QURAN. PhD thesis, University of Karachi, Karachi.



The Holy Quran is the last circle aswellas the final constitution for human life. It contains what so ever is suitable to the situation of the Muslims in their past and future. It is the anthalogy of the previous messages of God that has a comprehensive methodology, deals with all levels of time, space and people. Accordingly it has a very vast field for treatment and useful food for various stages of human activities and for its triangular elements soul, wisdom and body. The Holy Quran contains different methods and rules lead the humanity towards right Journey that is leading to his Creator, for achieving' happiness, justice and uprightness in this world and reward blessings success and internal paradise on the Day of Judgment All these achievements are based on the Criteria standards and Devine principles mentioned in the Quran for distinction, command and evaluation of the men's actions. These Devine principles are far from mans' wishes and his various sensibilities. My subject of study is "The Method of evaluation in the Holy Quran" that is selected to concentrate on explaining such principles applicable to the human conditions and effect the things thoughts and individuals belonging to the different walks of life. Keeping in view the subject of study it is necessary that its principles, conditions; dimention, benefits styles and hindrances are to be highlighted and then they may beapplied to the present situation of the Muslim ummah and other nations of the globel. So "The Method of Evaluation in the Holy Quran" is a constitution that determines the value of the things negatively and positively and after that it is applied for their modification and correction in accordance with the standards set by the Creator for His creature so that the creature could achieve its objectives of worship, vice gerancy, with, justice and comprehensiveness in this world and with reward or punishment in the world hereafter. There are 644 Quranic verses those' contain the Term Al-Taqawwam or the words drive from it. One verse contains its meanings 'in the context, of Ummah, as to maintain something forever, its reformation and to stand up for it as Allah the Almighty said: Al-lsteqamah for the meanings of smooth running of the matter and the religion with the concept of straight path that has no curve, where as The words AI- Taqweem and AI-Aqwam have' the meanings, the best in its composition, its Balance, its correctness and its Justice.. As Allah said and regarding such other meanings Allah says: The Quran has permanent and regular motive for reform, Justice, arbitration and evaluations so as it is permanent spirit stands for a distinction between right and wrong, good and evil and beauty and ugliness. As Allah' said mentioning these meanings: and Allah also says: The principle for establishing Justice and arbitration among the people, in accordance with Allah's scale and assessment for them with Justice, is based on what they earned and acted for various affairs of their lives. This study brings forward a number of principles for "the Quranic method of evaluation" including COMPREHENSIVENESS and balance in, evaluation. Due to this reason the study points out the negative as well as positive aspects of the thing as Allah said: The Quran stated the benefits of the WINE and its sins and it did not state one of the both. Likewise the principle of Justice and objectivity contained in the saying of Allah: and principles of clarity explanation, knowledge, experience, proof, argument, the objectivity of the evaluation and its ethics, will also appear in the study as important principles of the method. The method of EVALUATION covers many such dimensions those includes the evaluation of the creatures like human beings, animals and Jinn. Allah said about the human beings: It means through mixing a miner thing from the male and the female he created ears, eyes as tools for distention and guidance and granted straight path hoopoe, ant, donkey, horse and others. The ways of straight path and evaluation in the fields of beliefs and thoughts as Allah says regarding the evaluation of the beliefs of the christens: The Quran evaluated the whole area of actions and its example is to evaluate the act of Jehad (Fighting in the ways of Allah) as Allah said The Quran generally looks into the conclusions of the actions, their assessment and their correctness as an honorable foundation in Islamic Shariah. Imam Shaatabi said "to look into the conclusions of the actions is the purpose and objective of Shariah". The quranic verse covers the point: This is a' Quranic principle stated for the evaluation of people' all acts if they are very tiny particles in the air. It is proved that the personal assessment is one of the biggest points among the dimensions of human life. It is the beginning point for change in the human life andict is a foundation for the fact that the man has good and evil in his composition as the Quran says: There is criteria for change, that the man himself should have a strong desire for change as the Quran says: Prophet Adam and Eve spoke regarding this principle, when they both said: This study states that the Quranic system of evaluation has its considerabie benefits and objectives those are ultimately leading towards ethics, They are not useless and meant for defamation, criticism, impairment, commendation, hypocrisy and exaggeration. For example the evaluation of beliefs that they all should be correct and true as Allah said: The worship for Allah alne, without making partner to Him inherits Taqwa and streight path. Among the benefits of evaluation to extend warnings and lessons. Due to this reason the efforts of the Prophets for the evaluation of their nations are memtioned in the Quranic stories regarding the long preaching lives of the respected prophets. As Allah said: The evaluations of the Prophets about their nations contains the warnings and advices for preachers and those who want to bring change in the human beings. The promotion of consultancy and dialogue are also among its benefits of the study on quranic method of stocktaking. Because the consultancy can only be achieved after applying the evaluation to the affairs and dialogue deals with its negative as well as positive results. As Allah said: This command was issued after the result of the battle jihad and it extends benefit for self assessment to the suitable man for a proper job. The evaluation may be applied to the administration at the time of disturbance and negligence for its betterment and excel-ration of its performance. It is also useful for monitoring the future and for extending Justice to evaluate the friends and enemies at the one time, It also provide PSYCHOLOGICAL satisfaction, clarity promotes confidence, moral bravery, minimizing the friction, duel acceptance of others viewpoints and opens human vistas for wisdom, intlact and stonds against restricting the human wisdom. The study shows that the Quranic evaluation appears in different styles and various ways, like the method of coexistence and scientific observances that is mentioned in Allah's saying about coexistence of two young persons with prophet Yousuf during his imprisonment in jail: The interpretation of dream was demanded by the two younger persons from prophet Yousuf due the coexistence and their confidence on prophet yousuf that is clear from their saying: The evaluation has also been stated in the form of a proverb and similitude like the saying of Allah: The spending of wealth in the way of allah, has been increased in many times for the people. The Quran explains the subject with such example that makes the man happy and opens his wisdom and provides him understanding. In the same way the styles of evaluation have been applied to the historical records of the ancient nations and communities, as well as to the counting, registration and the field report and there is a saying of Allah on the subject: It means a small gram of plant is being counted with due care and wisdom. And Allah's another saying: This statement was expressed by Hudhud when it was informing prophet Sulayman about the conditions of Queent Sabaa. This study revealed That the evaluation had Obstacles and Hindrances those were standing on its way and were not allowing it to extended to the whole life of the mankind the obstacle are like cruelty disease Prejudices, shert of understanding and intlict doubt and misconceptions and in the same way, the blind imitation exaggeration and rejected sacredness. These are very hard hindrances encircle the man and his wisdom and forbids lain from the Justice of evaluation its objectively clearity and comprehensiveness' there are many verses lead to the subject such as Their harts have doubt about the truth and faith that made them as they have boubts, they are afraid and they do not possess any stable position and a right command. As Allah's said: The doubts misconceptions regarding the people mis assessment of their conditions and wrong evaluation of their affairs lead towards spying and beak biting and in the way the human relations are broken and social set up is damaged. As Allah says: That your wrong assessment of my conract regarding the worship of calf that is the peack of injustice and oppression against your -selves and your wisdom. PHARAOH EXAGGRATED, and declared himself as sacred one and appointed himself As Elah other than Allah who said: and Allah said I mean that your opinion should follow my opinion. So I am not but your big lord. And Allah said in the rejection of blind imitation that covers the orders and provides true evaluation as Allah said: They are insisting upon the following of forefathers, though Satan leads them to Hell and stops them their from Allah's worship through this stupid logic and blind imitation that closes the man's reasoning man's and heart from the right and trse path. Likewise among the hindrances there is the concept of compound ignorance about something and to be the blunt for such ignorance or interruption into the same and forbidding its approach to the life of people. In the same way they are short of means for the avaluatoin education and training. But afterward they shift the shortcomings Retreat and difficulties towards the others. If one does not apply self assessment for himself, to promote his continuous justification for mistakes, though Allah insured this point in this verse: The man better knows about himself and his mistakes, although he brings excuses and frames arguments. In the last part of the study I tried to point out the conditions for application of the evaluation method to the life of the Muslims and non-Muslims and offered some theoretical efforts on the subject rendered by the Scholars and Experts. They include the method of evaluation of AI-Jarh Wal-Tadeel in the school of Ilm-ur-Rejaal and the Terms of Hadith as well as to make certain standards that who they should thmkleased on justice and reality and its relationship with our Islamic Standardization for evaluation and method for the study of evaluation of an Islamic personality, the evaluation of others and their publications. I pointed out the need for the training of the Muslims on the basis of this methodology for understanding and building of behavior through the means of teaching and training, to define the hindrances of the method and its preventives. I insured that the objective of the evaluation method is the human personality as Allah said: I touched a little to the evaluation of Islamic actions negatively and positively and its out-comes that the subject needs more efforts vigorously on the basis of the Quranic method that is exhaustive and just. At the end I established the need of linking this method with the Universality of Islam, that is method for the creation of whole humanity including the Muslims and non-Muslims and its standards is necessary that their measures are to be applied on all people without injustice. The friend and the enemy both are equal in the eyes of the Quranic evaluation method based on Justice. After that I mentioned some notions those may be helpful for increasing awareness and understanding in contemporary age and its invemtion for example the comparative study of fiqh, preterences Fiqh of causes of corruption causes of good and Fiqh of ideas and look on others. What are the formative elements for the rise of Ummah and its opinion about contemporary issues such as the concept globalization, dialogue among the religions, combating the terrorism and to target the enemies of Islam and their followers after its Quranic evaluation that is free from excess shallowness and looks with single eye, selt Justification and intro worness for self. It was proved that this method can not be applied but through the application of continuous efforts from childhood up to the age, of extending benefit to others and success can only be achieved if all effective circles from the leadership level up to the people in the life of Ummah and their moto should be Allah's saying: And everyone should work accordingly to this foundation through contentment, Planning and their method of evaluation.

Item Type:Thesis (PhD)
Uncontrolled Keywords:Holy Quran, evaluation, Al-Taqawwam, Quranic system, Hadith, Islamic Standardization.
Subjects:Social Sciences(g) > Religious Studies(g18)
ID Code:679
Deposited By:Mr. Muhammad Asif
Deposited On:21 Sep 2006
Last Modified:04 Oct 2007 21:02

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