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Title of Thesis

An Analysis of the Afghan Resistance Against Soviet Invasion

Author(s)

Muhammad Tauqeer Alam

Institute/University/Department Details
Area Study Centre (Russia, China & Central Asia) / University of Peshawar, Peshawar
Session
2007
Subject
Study Area
Number of Pages
460
Keywords (Extracted from title, table of contents and abstract of thesis)
Afghan, Resistance, Soviet, Invasion, expost facto, tradition-bound, religio-tribal, society

Abstract
"An Analysis of the Afghan Resistance against Soviet Invasion." is an expost facto analytical study of Soviet-Afghan war (1979-89). This analysis is based on the hypothesis that resistance movements, historically, are rooted in the culture and value system. Seen from this point of view, the Afghans struggle against Soviet occupation was intellectually, culturally and operationally tribal in nature.
This study is carried out in the context of Saur Revolution of April 27, 1978 and Soviet military intervention in Afghanistan on December 24, 1979. These two historic events gave birth to one of the greatest guerrilla movements of the twentieth century. The Afghan resistance was an indigenous outburst against the policies and programmes of a pro-Marxist government in a tradition-bound religio-tribal society. Former Soviet Union's military intervention internationalized this internal conflict in 1980. The regional and extra-regional players to Afghan conflict exploited the tribalism of Afghans to their own advantage. Afghans heroic and steely resistance compelled Soviet Union to withdraw. But the disinterest on the part of Afghan resistance leaders and local commanders and their foreign sponsors to turn this tribal-guerrilla movement into a viable political organization led to its fragmentation shortly after the withdrawal of Soviet forces from Afghanistan.
Since this is an expost facto analytical study, qualitative approach is adopted to define the events. Very important documents about Afghanistan war, which were state secrets until recently have been used as primary sources to reach a logical conclusion. Interviews of conducted. Besides, (lie literature on Afghanistan war which was mostly in Pushto and Dari, after the fall of Dr. Najeeb government in April 1992 by former Afghan army generals and PDPA leaders has been used as a major primary source, alley being verified from other sources.
Besides proving the validity of the hypothesis, in this study certain important questions have been raised and answered logically. These include: Why did the resistance conic into being? Whether the origin and growth of the resistance was spontaneous or it was a well thought out phenomenon? What were the ideological and social foundations of this resistance? How and why this nibble turned into a formidable guerrilla force? What were the shortcomings of this resistance? And why this religio-tribal national liberation movement returned to its origins – tribalism and infighting – the root causes of its failure. In the context of this research work, it has also been proved that Saur Revolution was a monolithic PDPA action and the Soviet Union had nothing to do with that. The former USSR had no intention to militarily intervene in Afghanistan, neither it had any designs to extend its control up to the Indian Ocean. But the Soviets had to own the Saur Revolution and they sent forces under political and strategic compulsions.

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S. No. Chapter Title of the Chapters Page Size (KB)
1 0 CONTENTS

 

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INTRODUCTION 1
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3 2 THE AFGHAN SOCIETY 17
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4 3 THE SAUR REVOLUTION AND SOVIET INVASION OF AFGHANISTAN 38
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5 4 THE EMERGENCE OF AFGHAN RESISTANCE 96
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6 5 THE ORGANIZATIONAL DYNAMICS OF AFGHAN RESISTANCE 148
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7 6 THE INTERNAL POLITICS OF AFGHAN RESISTANCE AND LEADERSHIP PATTERNS 200
4,153 KB
8 7 SOVIETS VS RESISTANCE-AN ANALYSIS OF WAR 252
4,806 KB
9 8 GENEVA ACCORDS, SOVIET WITHDRAWAL AND FRAGMENTATION OF AFGHAN RESISTANCE 311
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10 9 CONCLUSION 360
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11 10 APPENDICES & BIBLIOGRAPHY i
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