|Keywords (Extracted from title, table of contents and
abstract of thesis)|
Socio, Psychological, Determinants,
Crimes, Pakistan, interpersonal relationships, enforcement agencies
The purpose of the present research was to explore key socio-psychological determinants of crimes in Pakistan. The data for this study is based on the perception of criminals (convicts, non-criminals and intellectuals working us lawyers, religious scholars, politicians, journalists and members of law enforcement agencies. One hundred and seven criminals (convicts) were randomly selected from Peshawar and Haripur jails, and an equal number of non-criminals and intellectuals Were also selected to collect data on the study variables: age group, education marital status, economic status and residential area. To cover the second part of the study. Criminals and non-criminals samples were administered a psychological characteristics scale to measure attitudes towards interpersonal relationships, risk taking tendencies, and rebelliousness. The
MMPI (Minnesota Multiphase Personality Inventory) and UACL (Urdu Adjective check list) was also used to measure the trends of psychopathic and personality characteristics profile of criminals and non-criminals. The third part of the study taps the perception of criminals, not-criminals and intellectuals about due frequency and seriousness of crimes taking into consideration aspects of family history, economics, politics, education, media, law enforcement agencies, norms, traditions, culture and values.
The results indicate dual a corrupt police system, unemployment, mad administration, out dated colonial laws, lacunas in the judicial system and lack of coordination among law enforcement agencies were the major contributors to promote the crime rate. The demand for seeking justice under present circumstances is too expensive besides being time consuming. In addition, political instability, low literacy rate, poor governance, abject poverty are the contributory factors for miserable environment. Besides this the rapidly changing norms and standards in the society has largely influenced people's concept of dignity and honour. Predominated prestige standards and social status are currently measured in terms of wealth and mundane possessions. Unemployment and a desire to become rich Overnight promoted unethical practices. Lack of parental control and easy access to videos were instrumental in projecting immoral values and aggression to enhance the rate of crimes in the society. The findings also indicate the significant influential role of media in increasing crimes ratios.
The psychosocial characteristic rating scale score of criminals on interpersonal relationship is low as compared to non-criminals. On risk taking tendency and rebelliousness. the score of criminals is high as compared to non-criminals. The score of criminals on sub scale psychopathic Deviations of MMPI test is high as compared to the non-criminals (criminals M=21.54 and non
criminals M 19.09). On UACL the mean score is high for criminals (4.10) as compared to non-criminal (4.02) on over ambitiousness. The data analysis also revealed that antisocial tendency was more significant among the individuals having a high MMPI score. The people who had poor interpersonal relations were caught in anti-social behavior. They were emotionally unstable and more vulnerable to commit crime as compared to those having good interpersonal relations.