Madrassa-State Relations: An Analysis of the State Policies during General Zia-ul-Haq (1977-1988) and General Pervez Musharraf (1999-2008) Era

Maryam Siddiqa Lodhi, . (2015) Madrassa-State Relations: An Analysis of the State Policies during General Zia-ul-Haq (1977-1988) and General Pervez Musharraf (1999-2008) Era. Doctoral thesis, INTERNATIONAL ISLAMIC UNIVERSITY, ISLAMABAD.

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Abstract

This study aims to explore and investigate the state-led madrassa reforms initiated under the banners of Islamization and Enlightened Moderation philosophies which also served as a backdrop of madrassa-state relations in General Zia-ul-Haq and General Musharraf era. In order to approach the facts, the study has made use of the primary and secondary sources. This study has given an insight of how both the military regimes initiated the madrassa reforms with a great vigour but on the implementation stages diverted from the projected process. They kept on shaping and reshaping the reform plans by granting concessions to few among the stakeholders till they became adjustable to the regimes. This study has shown that modification of curriculum in order to integrate the madrassa system with the formal system of education in both regimes was the top priority besides resolving financial problems in Zia era and regulating madrassas in Musharraf era. The essence of the entire reform plans in both eras was declared to bring the madrassas into mainstream national life. Besides pointing out flaws left at the formulation and implementation stages, this study has taken into account the implications of reforms by categorizing the stakeholders into four as; madrassa students, madrassa administration, government and society. Firstly, taking into a glimpse at madrassa the study depicted that nothing concrete came up for the benefits of madrassa students and graduates in both eras. Infact, their conditions remained as deplorable as prior to reforms, their curriculum did not undergo any major shift that could give them acceptability in any other field for employment and they remained subservient to their teachers even after the reforms as they were ever before. Secondly, the study giving an indepth analysis has shown that madrassas' high ups enjoyed political powers hatched out of madrassa reforms and legitimized the military regimes by extending support in legislature. The only connection between the madrassa administrations and students driven out of madrassa reforms in Zia era was that students and graduates brought accommodation to the regime on the international level by participating in Afghan war against the USSR over the directions of their teachers most of whom were state's recipient for economic and political benefits. Thirdly, this study has highlighted that the state adopting the rational approach framed the madrassa reforms as the term 'mainstreaming' which was a sole and a common objective in both the aforementioned eras was not candidly defined either by the policy makers or literary circles. The military rulers used the term in their own ways to achieve maximum out of it and assigned roles to madrassa's high-ups in politics of the state under Islamization and Enlightened Moderation Ideologies, which was assumed as mainstreaming of madrassas in both eras. Fourthly, the study scratched out that the reforms directly and indirectly sowed the seeds of few of the contemporary issues prevailing in society such as sectarianism and violence. Briefly, this study concluded that the interests of madrassa students and on a broader level society were quite divergent to the interests of madrassa administration and the state who was the real beneficiaries of implications emerged out of the realm of reforms in both the addressed eras. Moreover, this study asserts that neither madrassa administration nor the state were really interested in reforming madrassas for the benefits of the students and graduates in the long run rather reforms served as a shadow to settle their mutual 'gives and takes' which were accomplished successfully as the state had most of the attributes of a neo-patrimonial state.

Item Type: Thesis (Doctoral)
Uncontrolled Keywords: Madrassa-State,Analysis,Policies,General,Era
Subjects: J Political Science > JA Political science (General)
J Political Science > JZ International relations
Depositing User: Ms Maryam Saeed
Date Deposited: 26 Oct 2017 03:57
Last Modified: 26 Oct 2017 03:57
URI: http://eprints.hec.gov.pk/id/eprint/6731

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