The study "Causative factors of Mental Retardation" focuses on the children with mental disabilities. Any disability or abnormality is a great problem for the disabled and for his/her family. The area of study was limited to the Mental Retardation Center, Complex for Special Education, Baluchistan, Complex for Special Education, Hayatabad, Peshawar & Sarhad School for Rehabilitation of Disabled, Peshawar.
1- To study the extent of congenital causes of mental retardation.
2- To study the environmental factors affecting the development of the mentally retarded.
3- Endogamy as a social factor to mental retardation.
4- Attitude of neighbors and other family members to the retarded child.
Mental retardation involves a general delay in the development of intellectual and adoptive abilities and affects most areas of social cognitive and language functioning. Mental retardation is generally assessed by a combination of testing on formal tests of intelligence and by observation of the child's adoptive functioning. The levels and I.Q scores of retardation are as Mild in between 55-70, Moderate 40-54, severe, 23-39, profound below 25 (Bniot Scale).
For this research, Sarhad Model School for Special Education and Complex for Special Education. Hayatabad Peshawar was selected from NWFP and Kiran Complex of Special Education School was selected from Baluchistan. All schools arc under Federal Government. A total sample of 100 retarded children parents and their neighbors were selected for this research. Fifty Retarded children's parents & 50 next-door neighbors of mental retarded child were selected from botl provinces, to find out the main causative factors of mental retardation, and to know the societies mental approach i.e.their attitudes and their views about the retarded children. Mental retardation is a term, which covers all forms of less than normal intellectual functioning. (S. M. Bhatia, 1992)
The study was based on four assumptions,
1st Assumption was:
Families with poor Economic conditions have trial – nourished and poor health of the expecting mothers, which affects the fetus's mental and physical development.
2nd Assumption was:
Stress, and strains on the expecting mothers affect the fetus and increases menta' retardation in newborn children.
3rd Assumption was:
Cousin marriages weaken the genes of couple and they give birth to the mentally retarded children.
Assumption No.4 was:
Aged and physiological weak mothers give birth to mentally retarded children.
From different research techniques interview technique was used for data collection. Poi pre-testing, 10 interviews were taken, unnecessary things like repetition of questions and language of the interview schedule was checked, after it, interview schedule was improved. After data collection it was classified and tabulated. The main inferences were:
• To know the causative Factor of mental retardation.
• To study the environmental factors affecting the development of the mentally retarded.
• Endogamy as a social factor to mental retardation.
• Attitude of retarded child's neighbor and his family members.