Pakistan Research Repository


Khan, Muhammad Aslam (2000) IDENTIFICATION OF THE FACTORS AFFECTING THE WORKING EFFICIENCY OF AGRICULTURE. PhD thesis, Sindh Agriculture University, Tando Jam.



Stagnation in per hectare agriculture productivity in Pakistan s food and fibre system necessitates fundamental reforms in our agricultural support services and input delivery mechanism. Of special concern is the dissatisfaction of clientele with the agricultural extension services which have not been able to make a major breakthrough in the adoption of recommended technology; even after the implementation of T & V system since last two decades. The present study was therefore undertaken with the main objectives of identifying and analyzing the factors affecting the working efficiency of Agricultural Extension field staff in Punjab province so as to formulate extension strategies for future. A random sample of 16 Deputy Directors of Agriculture (out of 34) 46 Extra Assistant Directors of Agriculture (out of 85) and 175 Agriculture Officers ( Extension ) out of 350 was selected with due representation of all major agro ecological zones of the Punjab. A comprehensive questionnaire containing queries regarding all major research parameters was developed pre tested and personally administered to the 237 selected respondents. An extensive general review of literature was made with special reference to the conditions obtaining in Pakistan. Case studies on innovative agricultural extension approaches were also undertaken to draw qualitative inferences regarding appropriate policy implications for the Punjab province. Results of the study depicted that the DDAs and EADAs were quite satisfied with their existing residential transport and communication facilities whereas the AOs were not satisfied with the same. Majority of the three respondent groups was not satisfied with the availability of computer and internet facilities in the department. Inadequacy of technical literature and lack of funding and other logistics support for establishing demonstration plots was voiced by all three respondent categories. Timely payment of TA/DA specially to the AOs was identified as a major limiting factor inhibiting active on farm extension work. The pay structure medical facilities other fringe benefits and in service training opportunities were considered quite inadequate and frustrating. The AOs reported that their jurisdiction was too large as compared to the available transport and operational funds. Also they complained that they were not being consulted on departmental policy and annual work plan. The DDAs and EADAs reported adverse effects of political factors including political intervention in departmental promotions and private assignments from the bosses. Poor linkages between agricultural research education and extension were also reported as a major constraint in the timely feedback and working efficiency of field staff. All three categories of respondents emphasized a revision in the syllabi for pre service training with emphasis on Agronomy Entomology and Agricultural Extension in university curricula. Use of AV Aids including the modern gadgets of TV and computer was highlighted for effective performance. Supplementary as well as complementary activities of the NGO s and the private sector were appreciated so as to create better physical facilities as well as to provide rewarding learning experiences in sustainable and environment friendly agriculture. The respondents were of the opinion that the technical information was received too late from their higher ups which adversely affected the working efficiency of extension staff. Inferences from case studies suggested that the innovative strategies of programme approach commodity based approach model (demonstration) approach women in productivity approach poverty alleviation approach small development loan approach and participatory training approach in China could be adopted in Pakistan specially for the commercialization of small farmers. The success story of university extension services in India could also be replicated in Punjab province where the University of Agriculture Faisalabad has an extended pool of technical agriculture and social science expertise. Based on the findings of this study it is suggested that extension staff be equipped with better training and adequate physical facilities. Extension service system should be made free from political interference and necessary incentives be offered to the field staff. Concept of participatory management and better monitoring system be encouraged in the Agriculture Extension department in the Punjab. It is also suggested that Agricultural Universities in Pakistan should have an institutionalized agricultural extension service with elaborate infrastructure at the district level for agricultural technology transfer to the farmers. There is a felt need for specialized training in human relation skills resource management leadership skills programme development communication techniques personnel guidance and monitoring and evaluation. An advanced extension education training institute is recommended to be established at the federal level to undertake the professional capacity building activities in a planned manner. To make the system more service oriented it is suggested that AOs EADAs and DDAs should also be made front line workers. On an average 40 to 50 villages should be covered by each officer who should visit these villages at least thrice in every crop season. Vehicles may be provided for conducting out reach training programmes. Message for each specific village group of farming community may be developed through participatory and brain storming approach in collaboration with research experts. A realistic working schedule for extension staff may be prepared and followed strictly. Timely supply of inputs be ensured. Group participatory approach may be introduced which emphasizes learning according to the problems and constraints of individual farmers.

Item Type:Thesis (PhD)
Uncontrolled Keywords:Factors affecting the working efficiency of agriculture ( extension ) department Stagnation in per hectare agricultural productivity Fundamental reforms Deputy directors Extra assistant directors Agricultural officers Transport and communication facilities Computer and internet facilities Lack of funding Pay structure Political factors Entomology Agricultural extension Activities of the NGO s Sustainable and environment friendly agriculture Programme approach Commodity based approach Model (demonstration) approach Women in productivity approach Poverty alleviation Development loan Participatory training Agricultural technology transfer Human relation skills Resource management Leadership skills Programme development Communication techniques Personnel guidance Monitoring Evaluation
Subjects:Agriculture & Veterinary Sciences(a)
ID Code:67
Deposited By:Mr Ghulam Murtaza
Deposited On:18 Jun 2006
Last Modified:04 Oct 2007 20:59

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