Rehman, Junaid ur (2010) Behavioral Response of Fruit Fly Bactrocera Zonata (Saunders) and its Parasitoids to Plant Extracts. PhD thesis, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad.
Ecological sustainability has become a key consideration in all aspects of technology development including Insect Pest Management. Among multitude of insect pests fruit flies have gained immense importance not only because of fruit yield losses upto 10 percent but also affecting the trade drastically. Thus it has become essential to produce pest and pesticide free fruits for export. Therefore, research on some promising pest control plant materials was undertaken. Among solvent extracts of 9 promising indigenous plant materials, ethanol extract of `harmal' Peganum harmala was the most effective showing 59.38 percent repellency against Peach fruit fly Bactrocera zonata. It also suppressed and deterred oviposition directly affecting further development. The extract was chemically fractionated into 7 fractions using acetone:petroleum ether (5:1) in a glass column 56 cm long; 2.5cm internal diameter, packed with silica gel GE0049. Fractions I, IV and VII having Rf value of 0.94, 0.57 and 0.01, respectively, were promising repellents showing 29.78, 25.83 and 24.10 percent repellency. Oviposition deterrency was 33.92, 37.15 and 33.04 in fraction II, N and VII, respectively. In case of Olive fruit fly Bactrocera oleae the extract at 2 percent concentration repelled 90.24 percent flies from treated olives in group fly method. In single fly method, the flies spent 99.1 percent of foraging time on untreated olives in a free choice test. Time per fruit visit was 1.3 second on treated as compared with 356.2 seconds on the untreated olives. However, ethanol extract of P. harmala had no effect on parasitism of pupal parasitoid of B. zonata Dirhinus gifardii and larval-pupal parasitoid of B. oleae, Psyttalia concolor in choice and no- choice tests. Application of 1000, 750, 500 and 250 ppm in soil had no effect on pupation inhibition, however, early pupation was recorded in petroleum ether and ethanol extract of P. harmala in B. zonata. Fruit flies fed during pre-oviposition period on diet treated with 2000 ppm of ethanol extract of P. harmala had no effect on oviposition but egg hatching was significantly affected. In another study larval and pupal mortality was significantly higher in the eggs laid from day 21 to 26 in case of B. zonata. In B. oleae, 14 days feeding before mating showed 26.27 percent damaged eggs. Its SDS-PAGE analysis showed 2 proteins of 19 and 190 kDa missing in deformed eggs providing enough evidence of abnormal eggs in the lot. Further to this number of mature eggs load were lower in F1 generation of B. oleae flies fed on diet mixed with ethanol extract of P. harmala as compared to the flies fed on untreated diet. This might be due to genotoxic effect of some unknown compounds in P. harmala Biochemical studies showed less carbohydrate contents in flies feeding on extract as compared to normal flies while higher lipids and protein contents in treated flies than untreated flies. This probably due to interference of compounds with endocrinological system of flies. In field studies, different IPM protocols consisting of Male Annihilation Technique (MAT), Bait Application Technique (BAT), Sanitation and Neem/ harmal extracts as repellent were applied which indicated that MAT+BAT+Sanitation+Nimbokil 60 EC to be the most effective in mango orchards during 2005 and 2006 studies; and MAT+BAT+Nimbokil 60EC and MAT+BAT+Ethanol extract of P. harmala in guava allowing minimum infestation, population and damage by B. zonata during 2006 and 2007.
|Item Type:||Thesis (PhD)|
|Uncontrolled Keywords:||Behavioral, Response, Fruit Fly, Bactrocera, Zonata, Saunders, Parasitoids, Plant, Extracts|
|Subjects:||Biological & Medical Sciences (c) > Biological Sciences(c1)|
|Deposited By:||Mr. Javed Memon|
|Deposited On:||18 Jul 2011 15:16|
|Last Modified:||18 Jul 2011 15:16|
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