Muhammad Ehsan, Safdar (2015) INTERFERENCE AND MANAGEMENT STUDIES OF Parthenium hysterophorus L. IN MAIZE. Doctoral thesis, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad.

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ABSTRACT Parthenium (Parthenium hysterophorus L.) is an oncoming threatening weed for field crops including maize, in Pakistan. Scientific investigation regarding allelopathy, competiveness and management of parthenium in maize (Zea mays L.) was carried out through laboratory and field experiments. In laboratory experiments, allelopathic effect of 5% (w/v) aqueous extracts from root, stem, leaves, flowers and whole plant parts; and rhizospheric soil of parthenium growing at various farm's locations were tested against germination and seedling growth of maize. Maximum inhibition in germination (67%) and seedling biomass (106%) of maize was caused by leaf extract of parthenium uprooted from near field border probably due to its higher total phenolic contents (6678.2 mg L-1) and phenolic composition namely gallic, caffeic, 4 hydroxy-3-methoxy benzoic and p-coumaric acids detected in it. However, maize seed sown in parthenium rhizospheric soil near water channel showed maximum reduction in seedling biomass (35%) and seedling vigor index (34%) due to higher total phenolic contents (2549 mg L-1) and presence of m-coumaric, vanillic, syringic and ferulic acids in its 10% (w/v) aqueous extract. The bio-herbicidal potential of aqueous extracts with 5% (w/v) concentration from different plant parts (root, stem, leaves, flowers and whole plant) of four herb species (Achyranthes aspera L., Alternanthera philoxeroides Grisebach, Rumex dentatus L. and Datura metel L.); and with 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5% (w/v) concentrations from leaves of four tree species (Eugenia jambolana Lam., Ricinus communis L., Ziziphus jujuba L. and Ziziphus mauritiana L.) was explored against germination and seedling growth of parthenium by petriplate-based germination and pot-cultured based foliar spray bioassay studies. Maximum suppression in germination (95 and 79%) and seedling biomass (96 and 97%) of parthenium was caused by 5% leaf and whole plant extract of A. aspera, and leaf extract of R. communis, respectively due to their higher total phenolic contents (5778 and 6655 mg L-1) and presence of gallic, caffeic, chromatotropic, p-coumaric, m-coumaric, syringic and 4-hydroxy-3-methoxy benzoic acids. Field experiments were carried out to find out critical density, competition period and chemical control of parthenium. Three field experiments were conducted to study the effect of different density levels (0, 5, 10, 15, and 20 plants m-2) and competition periods (0, 5, 6, 7, 8 weeks after crop emergence and for full season) of P. hysterophorus; and various herbicides viz., atrazine @ 360 g a.i. ha-1, atrazine + nicosulfuron @ 385 g a.i. ha-1, atrazine + S-metolachlor @ 720 g a.i. ha-1, bromoxynil + MCPA + metribuzin @ 470 g a.i. ha-1 and dicamba @ 304.5 g a.i. ha-1 on growth and NPK-uptake by weed; yield, yield components and grain quality attributes of maize. Gradual increase in parthenium weed biomass and NPK uptake; whereas decrease in maize plant height, yield and yield components were observed with increasing parthenium density and competition period. Significant reduction in grain yield (20% in each) of maize was observed with parthenium density of 5 plants per m2 and parthenium competition period of 5 weeks after crop emergence, therefore considered to be critical for control of this weed. Economic thresholds of parthenium weed in maize crop were estimated to be 1.2 and 1.3 plants per m2 during year 2012 and 2013, respectively. In comparison with weedy check, all herbicide applications resulted in significant reduction in parthenium dry weight and NPK uptake; while significant increase in plant height, number of grains per cob, grain weight per cob and grain yield of maize was observed during both years of study. Among herbicides, the highest parthenium weed control efficiency (100%) was given by bromoxynil + MCPA + metribuzin @ 470 g a.i. ha-1 followed by dicamba @ 304.5 g a.i. ha-1 (90 and 96.8%) during years 2012 and 2013, respectively. The best performance in terms of grain yield increase over weedy check was shown by the bromoxynil + MCPA + metribuzin @ 470 g a.i. ha-1 (138%) followed by dicamba @ 304.5 g a.i. ha-1 (74%). The highest benefit: cost ratio (6.87 in first year and 7.17 in second year) and MRR (2858 in first year and 2030 in second year) was attained by bromoxynil + MCPA + metribuzin @ 470 g a.i. ha-1

Item Type: Thesis (Doctoral)
Uncontrolled Keywords: INTERFERENCE , Parthenium ,hysterophorus L. IN MAIZE
Subjects: S Agriculture > S Agriculture (General)
Depositing User: Mr Sami Uddin
Date Deposited: 25 Oct 2017 07:48
Last Modified: 25 Oct 2017 07:48

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