IMPACT OF EXCLUSION OF POOR COMMUNITIES ON SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT

MUHAMMAD SHABBIR CH, . (2015) IMPACT OF EXCLUSION OF POOR COMMUNITIES ON SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT. Doctoral thesis, University of Peshawar.

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Abstract

This study describes the impact of exclusion of poor communities on social development in district Lodhran. The study circulates around the involvement of poor communities of district Lodhran, particularly BISP beneficiaries and responsible major stakeholders of social development. Benazir Income Support Programme (BISP) beneficiaries in district Lodhran were the respondent and connivance sampling technique was used for the selection of 400 respondents for quantitative study and 27 participants were involved in 03 Focus Group Discussions (FGDs). Interview schedule was used as a tool of quantitative while Question guide/Checklist was developed as a tool for qualitative data collection. Uni-vairate and Bi-variate analysis has been made through Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) while quantitative data analysis was made by content analysis (thematic analysis). Uni-variate and bivariate analysis results reflected that people are thumb engraver and their income is less as compared to their expenses. People have large family sizes and prefer to live in joint families in small homes with less number of rooms. Agriculture is the largest profession and majority uses bicycle/motor cycle for personal transportation in emergency. The people were unhappy with the governmental policies and they suffer from discrimination and exploitation. Economic as well as social resources are grabbed by the rich and the poor is left cramped. Lawlessness prevails as the law enforcement agencies are puppets in the hands of bigwigs. All community development decisions and policies are made by the rich people in the area. Excluded people were not aware about importance of tax revenue and its proper utilization. Exclusion slows down the process of social development in district Lodhran, the poor can not avail themselves timely help, even their relatives, friends and colleagues do not support them at the time of emergency. As for as hypotheses testing results are concerned, weak situation of integration among the poor people which slow down the social development in the area is clearly xxiv reflected from the results of Hypothesis 1, "strong social integration leads to higher social development" is accepted which reflects the significant association was seen between the social integration and social development. Hypothesis 2 "low economic status also negatively affects social development" is accepted reflects the strong significance because people were unhappy with this BISP support because this support made no significant change in lives of BISP beneficiaries. Gender discrimination was found at large scale in district Lodhran. Hypothesis 3 "if there is lesser gender discrimination, more would be the Social Development" is also accepted that negative association observed between gender discrimination and social development. Acceptance of Hypothesis 4 "the greater involvement of SDOs/NGOs on development activities positively affects the social development" in the area which indorsed response of the community that poor people have never been called upon by NGOs/SDOs or government departments in community development programmes. Moreover, Hypothesis 5 "bad governance is negatively associated with the social development" is accepted. Quantitative and qualitative study results clearly supported the researcher's model. Therefore, inevitably, if prevailing conditions of poverty, governance, social integration, gender discrimination would be improved and involvement of government agencies and community development organizations is increased then exclusion of poor people would be reduced which will improve social development in district Lodhran. Consequently there is an immense need to ensure inclusion of poor community members in the process of social development in district Lodhran on urgent basis.

Item Type: Thesis (Doctoral)
Uncontrolled Keywords: EXCLUSION, POOR ,COMMUNITIES , DEVELOPMENT
Subjects: H Social Sciences > HM Sociology
Depositing User: Unnamed user with email jmemon@hec.gov.pk
Date Deposited: 25 Oct 2017 07:19
Last Modified: 25 Oct 2017 07:19
URI: http://eprints.hec.gov.pk/id/eprint/6612

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