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Title of Thesis

Crop Yield As Affected By Soil Moisture Conservation And Fertility Management Practices On Eroded Land In Pothwar Region

Author(s)

Aqila Shaheen

Institute/University/Department Details
Department of Soil Science & Soil and Water Conservation, Faculty of Crop and Food Sciences / Pir Mehr Ali Shah Arid Agriculture University, Rawalpindi
Session
2009
Subject
Soil Science
Number of Pages
261
Keywords (Extracted from title, table of contents and abstract of thesis)
Analysis, Affected, Crop, Moisture, Soil, Economic, Conservation, Fertility, Eroded, Practices, Pothwar, Land, Region, Nutrient, Sorghum, Nutrients

Abstract
The productivity of Pothwar plateau is quite low which is mainly attributed to low soil fertility and soil moisture stress at critical plant growth stages. The suitability of soil for crop production depends on the physical, chemical and biological characteristics of soil. Soil erosion affects the soil properties and crop production by reducing nutrient supply, water infiltration and water holding capacity. The crops like wheat, maize and sorghum are mainly grown in Pothwar rain-fed area and yields of these crops are less than their potential. The crop production strategies for increasing yields and sustaining them must include an integrated approach of soil nutrients management along with other complementary measures such as rain-water conservation. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of water conservation and soil fertility management practices on maize and wheat crop yields under rain-fed conditions of Pothwar at Fatehjang and Gujar Khan target areas and on sorghum yield in controlled conditions. This study consists of three experiments carried out during 2004-2007. The first study was a comprehensive survey for characterization of eroded land in Pothwar areas. Nine soil series viz. Missa,Pirsabak, Burhan, Rajar, Bahtar, Basal, Kufri, Khaur and Balkassar from Fatehjang area and eight soil series viz. Missa, Pirsabak, Guliana, Rajar, Balkassar, Rawalpindi,Chakwal and Satwal were sampled from Gujar Khan area. Data from the analysis of soil series elucidated that the soils at Fatehjang for both depths (0-15 cm and 30-45 cm) were alkaline (7.65-8.37) while at Gujar Khan the soil pH was slightly lower(7.36-7.94). Both area soils were free of salinity problem, however, on the average, soils of Gujar Khan target area had relatively lower free lime content than those from Fatehjang area. Organic matter contents were found higher in Gujar Khan than Fatehjang area. At Fatehjang deficiency of nutrients was 100 % (N), 100 % (P), 14 % (K), 100 % (Zn), 5 % (Cu), 38 % (Fe), 0 (Mn) and 100 % (B) for topsoil and for subsoil it was 100 % (N), 100 % (P), 29 % (K), 100 % (Zn), 12 % (Cu), 60 % (Fe), 0 (Mn) and 100 % (B). Similarly, at Gujar Khan area deficiency of nutrient was 97 % (N), 95 % (P), 32 % (K), 97 % (Zn), 0 (Cu), 20 % (Fe), 0 (Mn), 85 % (B), for topsoil and for subsoil it was 100 % (N), 100 % (P), 48 % (K), 100 % (Zn), 0 (Cu), 22 % (Fe), 0 (Mn), 90 % (B). The variability for studied soil characteristics at Fatehjang having coefficient of variance (CV) from 2 to 117 % and at Gujar Khan area the CV was from 3 to 155 %. Among soil series at both sites for both soil depths no specific trend of soil characteristics was related to soil erosion level. Simple correlation of organic matter, pH and free lime content (CaCO3) with soil nutrient was observed.
The second study was conducted to evaluate the effect of integrated moisture conservation and fertilizer application on crop yield of wheat and maize. Field experiments were conducted on the selected soil series of Fatehjang viz. Missa and Rajar and Gujar Khan viz. Guliana and Rajar to study the effect of integrated rain water conservation and fertilizer application on crop yield. There were four treatments, which consisted of: control, no soil water conservation and farmer's rate of fertilizer application (T1), improved fertilizer application + no soil water conservation practices (T2), soil water conservation practices, i.e., deep plowing, bund improvement, plowing across contour + farmer's rate of fertilizers application (T3) and soil water conservation + improved fertilizer application (T4). Two year data of wheat and maize showed that integrated moisture conservation and fertilizer application treatment proved effective and gave the highest yield. Similarly, water use efficiency (WUE) and nutrient uptake were greater under this treatment.Economic analysis showed that farmers can get significant profit by adopting rainwater conservation practices along with the application of balanced fertilizer application according to soil and crop requirements. However, data on nutrient status after wheat-maize cropping system indicated that there was an increase in nutrients content (N, P, Zn and B) over that in the original soil, but despite of this little increase in nutrients, the soil still remained deficient in all the nutrients.
The third study was conducted in a greenhouse to determine the impact of mulching and integrated nutrient management on water use and yield of sorghum. Sorghum is one of the most important crops of rainfed area. It is often a dual purpose crop with both the grain and stover considered as highly valued inputs. The greenhouse experiment revealed that mulch with integrated nutrient management (INM) is an effective measure to increase sorghum yield and WUE. Uptake of N and P was greater for the mulch treated plots than those without surface mulch, and uptake was highest for the N + P fertilizer, followed by the N + P fertilizer + manure, and then from the N + P fertilizer + compost treated soil. More amount of water was used by non-mulch treatments but yield produce was less than mulch treatments. Integrated nutrient management produced yield at par with N+P fertilizer treatment but the amount of water used was less, so higher WUE was recorded in mulch treatments with integrated nutrient management. It was concluded that the practice of moisture conservation along with supplying nutrients properly enhanced the crop as well as profitability in eroded soils of Pothwar plateau.

Download Full Thesis
1,508 KB
S. No. Chapter Title of the Chapters Page Size (KB)
1 0 CONTENTS
 

 

v
25 KB
2 1 INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background of the Study
1.2 Problem Identification
1.3 Problem Statement
1.4 Objective of the Study
1.5 Rationale of the Study

4
32 KB
3 2 REVIEW OF LITERATURE

2.1 Effect Of Erosion On Soil Characteristics
2.2 Effect Of Erosion On Nutrient Status Of Soil
2.3 Effect Of Erosion On Crop Productivity
2.4 Effect Of Fertilizer Application On Rehabilitation Of Soil Fertility
2.5 Effect Of Fertilizer Application And Moisture Conservation On Crop Yield
2.6 Effect Of Fertilizer Application And Moisture Conservation On Uptake Of Nutrients
2.7 Effect Of Fertilizer Application And Moisture Conservation On Water Use Efficiency
2.8 Effect Of Integrated Nutrient Management And Moisture Conservation On Crop Yield And Water Use Efficiency

11
78 KB
4 3 CHARACTERIZATION OF ERODED LAND IN POTHWAR

3.1 Abstract
3.2 Introduction
3.3 Methodology
3.4 Results And Discussion

29
416 KB
5 4 EFFECT OF INTEGRATED SOIL MOISTURE CONSERVATION AND FERTILIZER APPLICATION ON CROP YIELD IN ERODED SOILS OF POTHWAR PLATEAU

4.1 Abstract
4.2 Introduction
4.3 Methodology
4.4 Results And Discussion

77
304 KB
6 5 IMPACT OF INTEGRATED NUTRIENT MANAGEMENT AND MULCH ON WATER USE AND YIELD OF SORGHUM

5.1 Abstract
5.2 Introduction
5.3 Methodology
5.4 Results And Discussion

140
82 KB
7 6 GENERAL DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION

 

158
28 KB
8 7 SUMMARY 165
 24 KB
9 8 LITERATURE CITED AND APPENDICES 171
389 KB