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Title of Thesis

Abdul Ghafoor
Institute/University/Department Details
University of Agriculture, Faisalabad/Department of Zoology and Fisheries Faculty of Sciences
Number of Pages
Keywords (Extracted from title, table of contents and abstract of thesis)
family araneidae, genus cyclosa, genus neoscona, genus nephila, family clubionidae, genus castianeira, family erigonidae, genus erigone, family gnaphosidae, genus callilepis, genus drassodes, genus geodrassus, genus gnaphosa, genus scotophaeus, genus sosticus, genus zelotus, family lycosidae, genus arctosa, genus hippasa, genus lycosa, genus pardosa, family oxyopidae, genus oxyopes, family salticidae, genus marpissa, genus myrmarachne, genus plexippus, genus phidippus, genus phlegra, family tomisidae, genus thomisus, spiders

The present study, which extended from June through December in 1993 and 1994, was carried out in four cotton fields, each cropped with NIAB-78 cotton variety. The two treated cotton fields (TCFs) were located at the campus of the University of Agriculture (UAF) while the two reference cotton fields (RCFs) were located at the Postgraduate Agricultural Research Station of the UAF. The four fields were sampled for spiders using pitfall traps each month from June through December in 1993 and 1994. Ten traps were operated each month for five consecutive days i.e. for 120 hours in each of the four cotton fields simultaneously. A total of 2647 specimens belonging to eight families and 64 species was captured. The recorded spider families were – Araneidae (10 spp.), Gnaphosiae (14 spp), Lycosidae (20 spp), Salticiae (12 spp), Thomisiae (4 spp), Oxyopidae (2 spp), Clubionidae (1 sp) and Erigonidae (1 sp) of the 64 species, 55 were already known to science while nine viz., Cyclosa punjabiensis, Nephila Pakistaniensis, Gnaphosa eucalyptus, Scotophaeus faisalabadiensis, Lycoca lignosus, Lycosa muzafari, Lycosa azhari, Pardosa producus and Plexippus noorai were new to science. The characteristic features of all the 64 species were described and the body measurements (wherever possible of a maximum of 10 adult specimens) for each of the two sexes (wherever possible) were recorded. The necessary diagrams of each of the new species were given.

Exactly similar trapping efforts from the two reference cotton fields in 1993 resulted in the capture of 1266 speciments of spiders represented by 59 species, whereas in 1994, 1411 specimens belonging to 54 species were captured. The species which were not represented in 1993 but were present in the sample of 1994 were Drassodes himalayaensis, Geodrassus srmourensis, Hippasa olivacea, Lycosa phipsoni, Phidippus pateli and Cyclosa insulane. In 1994Cyclosa spirifera, Neoscona elliptica, Nephila maculate, Nephila Paksitaniensis, Marpissa tenebrosa and Myrmarachne maratha were not recorded. The totalnumber of species recorded during the two years was 64.

Abundance and diversity of the spiders was high in August, September and October (with a peak in September), moderate in July, October and November and the least in December. About 52% of all the specimens belonged to the family Lycosidae, 18% Gnaphosidae, 12% to Salticidae, 9% to Araneidae, 5% to Thomisidae, 3% to Oxyopidae and about 1% to Erigonidae and Clubionidae each. In the TCFs during June and July the abundance and diversity data comparable to that of the RCFs. After spraying of the insecticides that began towards the end of the July, the spiders became scace in the TCF fields. During the period extending from August to December, no specimens of the families Araneidae, Erigonidae andThomisidae was recorded. Only 16 species were recorded during August – December of the two years of this study. They belonged toLycosidae (9 spp) and one species each to Salticidae, oxyopidae and Clubionidae. During these five months of 1993 and 1994 a total of 64 specimens of spiders was caught in the treated fields.

Download Full Thesis
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S. No. Chapter Title of the Chapters Page Size (KB)
1 0 Contents
116.18 KB
2 1 Introduction 1
37.72 KB
3 2 Review of Literature 6
72.99 KB
4 3 Materials and Methods 15
45.79 KB
5 4 Taxonomic Studies Results and Discussion 21
1790.75 KB
  4.1 Morphology & Terminology 21
  4.2 Family Araneidae 28
  4.3 Genus Cyclosa 29
  4.4 Genus Neoscona 38
  4.5 Genus Nephila 41
  4.6 Family clubionidae 50
  4.7 Genus Castianeira 51
  4.8 Family Erigonidae 54
  4.9 Genus Erigone 55
  4.10 Family Gnaphosidae 56
  4.11 Genus Callilepis 58
  4.12 Genus Drassodes 61
  4.13 Genus Geodrassus 64
  4.14 Genus Gnaphosa 65
  4.15 Genus Scotophaeus 75
  4.16 Genus Sosticus 80
  4.17 Genus Zelotus 83
  4.18 Family Lycosidae 89
  4.19 Genus Arctosa 90
  4.20 Genus Hippasa 93
  4.21 Genus Lycosa 101
  4.22 Genus Pardosa 123
  4.23 Family Oxyopidae 137
  4.24 Genus Oxyopes 138
  4.25 Family Salticidae 142
  4.26 Genus Marpissa 142
  4.27 Genus Myrmarachne 150
  4.28 Genus Plexippus 153
  4.29 Genus Phidippus 160
  4.30 Genus Phlegra 162
  4.31 Family Tomisidae 163
  4.32 Genus Thomisus 164
  4.33 EcologicalStudies:Results 173
  4.34 Reference Cotton Fields (RCFS) 173
  4.35 Treatment Cotton Fields (TCFs) 202
  4.36 Discussion 223
6 5 Summary 236
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7 6 Literature Cited
262.81 KB
  6.1 Literature Cited 239
  6.2 Appendices 266