Ghafoor, Abdul (2002) TAXONOMIC AND SOME ECOLOGICAL STUDIES OF THE CURSORIAL SPIDERS OF COTTON FIELDS AT FAISALABAD (PAKISTAN). PhD thesis, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad.
The present study, which extended from June through December in 1993 and 1994, was carried out in four cotton fields, each cropped with NIAB-78 cotton variety. The two treated cotton fields (TCFs) were located at the campus of the University of Agriculture (UAF) while the two reference cotton fields (RCFs) were located at the Postgraduate Agricultural Research Station of the UAF. The four fields were sampled for spiders using pitfall traps each month from June through December in 1993 and 1994. Ten traps were operated each month for five consecutive days i.e. for 120 hours in each of the four cotton fields simultaneously. A total of 2647 specimens belonging to eight families and 64 species was captured. The recorded spider families were ÃÂÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂ Araneidae (10 spp.), Gnaphosiae (14 spp), Lycosidae (20 spp), Salticiae (12 spp), Thomisiae (4 spp), Oxyopidae (2 spp), Clubionidae (1 sp) and Erigonidae (1 sp) of the 64 species, 55 were already known to science while nine viz., Cyclosa punjabiensis, Nephila Pakistaniensis, Gnaphosa eucalyptus, Scotophaeus faisalabadiensis, Lycoca lignosus, Lycosa muzafari, Lycosa azhari, Pardosa producus and Plexippus noorai were new to science. The characteristic features of all the 64 species were described and the body measurements (wherever possible of a maximum of 10 adult specimens) for each of the two sexes (wherever possible) were recorded. The necessary diagrams of each of the new species were given. Exactly similar trapping efforts from the two reference cotton fields in 1993 resulted in the capture of 1266 speciments of spiders represented by 59 species, whereas in 1994, 1411 specimens belonging to 54 species were captured. The species which were not represented in 1993 but were present in the sample of 1994 were Drassodes himalayaensis, Geodrassus srmourensis, Hippasa olivacea, Lycosa phipsoni, Phidippus pateli and Cyclosa insulane. In 1994Cyclosa spirifera, Neoscona elliptica, Nephila maculate, Nephila Paksitaniensis, Marpissa tenebrosa and Myrmarachne maratha were not recorded. The totalnumber of species recorded during the two years was 64. Abundance and diversity of the spiders was high in August, September and October (with a peak in September), moderate in July, October and November and the least in December. About 52% of all the specimens belonged to the family Lycosidae, 18% Gnaphosidae, 12% to Salticidae, 9% to Araneidae, 5% to Thomisidae, 3% to Oxyopidae and about 1% to Erigonidae and Clubionidae each. In the TCFs during June and July the abundance and diversity data comparable to that of the RCFs. After spraying of the insecticides that began towards the end of the July, the spiders became scace in the TCF fields. During the period extending from August to December, no specimens of the families Araneidae, Erigonidae andThomisidae was recorded. Only 16 species were recorded during August ÃÂÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂ December of the two years of this study. They belonged toLycosidae (9 spp) and one species each to Salticidae, oxyopidae and Clubionidae. During these five months of 1993 and 1994 a total of 64 specimens of spiders was caught in the treated fields.
|Item Type:||Thesis (PhD)|
|Uncontrolled Keywords:||family araneidae, genus cyclosa, genus neoscona, genus nephila, family clubionidae, genus castianeira, family erigonidae, genus erigone, family gnaphosidae, genus callilepis, genus drassodes, genus geodrassus, genus gnaphosa, genus scotophaeus, genus sosticus, genus zelotus, family lycosidae, genus arctosa, genus hippasa, genus lycosa, genus pardosa, family oxyopidae, genus oxyopes, family salticidae, genus marpissa, genus myrmarachne, genus plexippus, genus phidippus, genus phlegra, family tomisidae, genus thomisus, spiders|
|Subjects:||Biological & Medical Sciences (c) > Biological Sciences(c1) > Paleo-zoology(c1.10)|
|Deposited By:||Mr. Muhammad Asif|
|Deposited On:||14 Sep 2006|
|Last Modified:||04 Oct 2007 21:02|
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