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Title of Thesis

Seasonal Variation In Nutritional And Anti-nutritional Components Of Native Shrubs And Trees Grown In Hazargangi Chiltan National Park, Karkhasa And Zarghoon

Author(s)

Ghazala Shaheen

Institute/University/Department Details
Department Of Botany / University Of Balochistan, Quetta
Session
2009
Subject
Botany
Number of Pages
172
Keywords (Extracted from title, table of contents and abstract of thesis)
Variation, Nutritional, Hazargangi, Zarghoon, Xanthoxyloides, Shrubs, Phosphorus, Eburnea, Sophara, Abrotanoide, Atomic, Pistacia, Absorption

Abstract
Balochistan is the largest province of Pakistan and covers about 44% of the total country. Majority of people rely on live stock for their living. Since the natural resources are less, insufficient and of low quality, to meet the nutritional requirements of livestock population. Therefore, this study was conducted to find out the best source of fodder among the native, dominant trees and shrubs of Quetta.
Two trees Fraxinus xanthoxyloides and Pistacia khinjuk and six shrubs Amylgdalus brahuica, Prunus eburnea, Caragana ambigua, Sophara mollis, Perovskia abrotanoides and Berberis baluchistanica were analyzed for their nutritional and antinutritional value seasonally from 3 habitats of Quetta district for 2 years. Plant foliage samples were evaluated for their ash, carbohydrate, crude protein, crude fiber and energy levels. Macro and micro elemental composition N, P, Ca, K, Na, Fe, Al and Mn of foliage were also determined by atomic absorption, flame photometer and X-rayflorescence spectrophotometer. Soil samples of 3 habitats were also analyzed for their chemical and physical properties. These were positively correlated with foliage samples. Feeding trials were carried out by feeding the foliage to sheep, also their initial and final body weights were monitored, fecal and urine sample were analyzed for carbohydrate, crude protein, crude fiber and total nitrogen.
F. xanthoxyloides was found to be the best among two trees evaluated as it has significantly high carbohydrates, crude protein, and mineral content while comparatively less crude fiber and phenolics as compare to P. khinjuk were recorded. The elemental concentrations were high during summer season. Mineral concentration gradually increased from spring to autumn season and showed decrease in winter’s season.Phosphorus and calcium concentration were higher than the recommended amount for small ruminants. These concentrations were positively correlated with soils physical and chemical characters. Significant increase (P > 0.05) in body weight of sheep was observed when fed with F.xanthoxyloides. The trees found at Zarghoon had high nutritional values than the other two sites. Among six shrubs checked P. eburnea had significantly high nutritional value. The weight of the animals fed with these two species was also significantly increased. Therefore these two species may be considered as an excellent source of fodder and are recommended for animal grazing. Among the other five shrubs the following three species C. ambigua, A. brahuica and B. baluchistanica were found to have medium nutritional and mineral contents and provide an important part of diet but must be supplemented with some other complete diet. P. abrotanoides has an bad odor with high phenolics which eventually repels the ruminants and thus not generally preferred for grazing. S. mollis has cutinized leaves which become the sole reason for not being grazed even though it has better nutritional value. However no significant differences of energy level were observed between trees and shrubs.

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S. No. Chapter Title of the Chapters Page Size (KB)
1 0 CONTENTS

 

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59 KB
2

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INTRODUCTION

1.1 Description about the plants
1.2 General introduction of Pakistan and Balochistan
1.3 General introduction of Quetta valley
1.4 Description of study sites

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3,046 KB
3 2 REVIEW OF LITERATURE

 

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4 3 MATERIALS AND METHODS

3.1 Forage sample collection
3.2 Moisture and ash content
3.3 Sample preparation
3.4 Elemental analysis
3.5 Anti-nutritional analysis
3.6 Nutritional studies
3.7 Feeding Trails
3.8 Soil Analysis
3.9 Statistical Analysis

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5 4 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

4.1 Forage mineral concentration
4.2 Anti- nutritional studies
4.3 Nutritional studies
4.4 Feeding Trails
4.5 Soil
4.6 Conclusion 

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6 5 REFERENCES 122
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