

Title of Thesis
Taxonomic Study Of Chlorophyta,charophyta And Vaucheriophyta From
Northeastern Areas Of Pakistan 
Author(s)
Miss Zarina Ali 
Institute/University/Department Details
Department Of Botany / Federal Urdu University Of Arts, Science &
Technology, GulshanEIqbal Campus, Karachi 
Session 2008 
Subject
Botany 
Number of Pages 349 
Keywords (Extracted from title, table of contents and
abstract of thesis) Education, Childhood, Chlorophyta,
Taxonomic, Experimental, Vaucheriophyta, Experimental, North, Areas,
Eastern 
Abstract
A sound education in mathematics is important for any modern
knowledge based economy. Mathematics is now important in many areas
where it has not previously played much of role, for example, in
biology, social sciences etc. If the proper mathematical foundations
are not laid during the formative years of childhood and
adolescence, it becomes increasingly difficult to address this
weakness in later life. The attempts to confront these shortcomings
during retraining in later life are generally wasteful and only
partly successful.
The present study was designed to investigate the comparative
effectiveness of problemsolving approach on the academic
achievement of secondary school students in mathematics. The major
objectives of the study were: (1) To determine whether the problem
solving approach is more effective than expository strategy of
teaching on academic achievement of students in mathematics. (2) To
determine whether the problem solving approach is more effective
than expository strategy of teaching on attitude of students in
mathematics. (3) To examine the effect of problemsolving approach
on the academic achievement of low achievers. (4) To measure the
effect of problemsolving approach on the academic achievement of
high achievers. (5) To find out the effect of problemsolving
approach on the retention of students in mathematics.
To achieve the objectives of study, following null hypotheses were
tested: (1) There is no significant difference between the pretest
mean achievement scores of experimental and control group. (2) There
is no significant difference between the pretest mean achievement
scores of low achievers of experimental group and control group. (3)
There is no significant difference between the Pretest mean
achievement
scores of high achievers of experimental and control group. (4)
There is no significant difference between pretest mean attitude
scores of experimental group and control group. (5) There is no
significant difference between the posttest mean achievement scores
of experimental group and control group. (6) There is no significant
difference between posttest mean achievement scores of low
achievers of experimental group and control group. (7) There is no
significant difference between posttest mean achievement scores of
high achievers of experimental group and control group. (8) There is
no significant difference between posttest mean attitude scores of
experimental group and control group. (9) There is no significant
difference between mean achievement scores of experimental group and
control group and control group on retention test. (10) There is no
significant difference between mean achievement scores of high
achievers of experimental group and control group on retention test.
(11) There is no significant difference between mean achievement
scores of low achievers of Experimental group and control group on
retention test.
Secondary school students studying mathematics constituted the
population of study. The student of 10th class of Govt. Pakistan
Girls Higher School, Rawalpindi (Pakistan) was selected as a sample
of the study. The pretest posttest equivalentgroup design was
used for the study. The sample size consisted of forty eight
students who were divided into experimental group and control group,
each consisting of 24 students by equating them on their previous
knowledge in mathematics, as determined through a pretest. A
treatment of planned problemsolving approach was provided to the
experimental group while the control group was taught by expository
strategy for a period of six weeks.
During that period the experimental group was taught with help of
series of lesson plans designed on guide lines of Sharan (2006) and
Polya (1945) heuristics steps of problems solving approach. After
the treatment, the posttest was used to see the effects of that
treatment. On the basis of pretest, the experimental group and
control groups were further subdivided into two groups: high
achievers and low achievers. Significance of difference between the
mean scores of the both groups was tested at 0.05 level of
significance by applying twotailed ttest.
Data analysis revealed that both the experimental and control group
were almost equal in mathematics base at the beginning of the
experiment. The experimental group outscored significantly than
control group on the posttest, and long term retention showing
supremacy of problem solving approach over expository strategy. The
performance of high achievers and low achievers of experimental
group was found better than those of control group. The attitude
towards math of experimental group also improved. Hence, the
ultimate result of the study indicated that problemsolving approach
was more effective in terms of achievement, attitudes and retention
in the subject of mathematics as compared to the expository
strategy. 
