|Keywords (Extracted from title, table of contents and
abstract of thesis)|
Study, Lexico -Semantical,
Peculiarities, Translation, Scientific, Technical, Text, Urdu, Russian,
scientific and technical text is a multidimensional and multifaceted
process determined by the System and norm of the two languages
involved. It is not only dependant on the two cultures and the
communicative situations, but also directly dependant on the
referential situation and the functional parameters, of the source /
target text. The process of translation is not only a speech act,
but also an act of cross-cultural communication and this fact is
borne out by the interdisciplinary status of translation studies and
its close link with contrastive and text-linguistics; socio and
psycholinguistics and semiotics.
The 21st century witnessed the
emergence of scientific and technical translation as an independent
field of study on the international level. The Intercultural and
Intercontinental communications made it mandatory for human beings
to understand scientific, technical and environmental issues in the
world, and to leave their cocoons behind. It only served to
underscore the significance that translation studies was to hold in
the times to come.
There is hardly a Translator or an Interpreter
today who has not to deal with translation of scientific and
technical materials. Translation of technical text puts a premium on
the translator's knowledge of the subject-matter of Source Text. He
must take great pains to get familiar with the system of terms in
the appropriate field and make good use of technical dictionaries
and other books of reference.
When new words come into being to
denote news object or phenomena, they naturally cannot have regular
equivalents in another language. Such equivalents may only gradually
evolve as the result of extensive contacts between the two nations.
Therefore the translator coming across a new coinage has to
interpret its meaning and to choose the appropriate way of rendering
it in his translation.
It has been observed that many phenomenon,
words and terminologies of Urdu language have no regular
equivalents, and a number of techniques has been suggested for
transformation of such units of translation in Russian. New words
are coined in the language to give names to new objects, or
phenomena which become known to the people.
Thus, research has been
conducted in the background of the ever changing in scientific and
technological scenario. The fast-track changes and rapid
breakthrough in almost all fields in science and technology has made
it mandatory for technical and scientific texts to translate into
languages, other than the one in which the study or work has been
conducted. Selecting this area to work in, the researcher has tried
to focus on the problems encountered during the translation of
technical and scientific texts from Urdu into Russian.
researcher is seemed mindful of the magnitude of the task, and has
therefore delimited the study to focusing on the lexico-semantic
peculiarities of translation of scientific and technical text from
Urdu into Russian. Russian and Urdu are difficult languages to
learn/teach, yet the geographical proximity has made it important
for learners and teachers to recognize and identify the issues
involved in translating the text. The major problems, in rendering
Urdu scientific/technical texts into
Russian, lie in the domain of lexico-semantics. Thus, the researcher
has made a comparison of the two languages. But in keeping with the
nature of the study, has focused only on the major differences – the
foremost being the fact that Urdu lexicon suffers from a dearth of
scientific and technical terminology. These and other points have
been discussed in detail in this study.
The parameters of the
research demand a theoretical framework, and this has been discussed
in the preliminary chapters – 1 & 2. Chapter 3 comprises general
scientific and technical lexicon; word-building; structure and
features of translation of terminological units and ways of
translating multi-component terms etc. Chapter 4 deals with the
fundamentals of translation, focusing on the contrastive analysis of
translation material. The concluding chapter gives the findings and
recommends that the study be used to further explore and exploit the
Russian market, in order to give a boost to our economy.
discusses translation studies, from a variety of perspectives and
not merely the pedagogical aspects. The nature of the research
combined with the significance of the language in the global
scenario, makes this study the first of its kind, and the
researcher, without idle boasting, is hopeful that he has begun to
set a new trend in Pakistan. Hopefully, this study would be utilized
to its utmost and in the spirit in which it has been conducted.