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Title of Thesis

Evaluation Of Different Bait Formulations For The Management Of Indian Crested Porcupine, Hystrix Indica Kerr

Author(s)

MUHAMMAD MUSHTAQ

Institute/University/Department Details
Department of Zoology, Faculty of Sciences / Pir Mehr Ali Shah Arid Agriculture University, Rawalpindi
Session
2009
Subject
Zoology
Number of Pages
244
Keywords (Extracted from title, table of contents and abstract of thesis)
Evaluation, Bait Formulations, Management, Indian Crested Porcupine, Hystrix Indica, Fumigation, zinc phosphide

Abstract
Field trials were conducted in Abbotabad-Balakot tract (Pakistan), during April 2004 to January 2007 to select cheap, locally available and suitable bait formulations for Indian crested porcupine (Hystrix indica) and tested these for their potentials to carry lethal quantities of rodenticides. Results of no-choice, multiple-choice and paired-choice tests revealed that groundnut was preferred, both in the whole and cracked forms, over maize, wheat, millet, rice, gram and oats. All the food items were consumed in significantly higher quantities than in their whole form, except for rice. Consumption of all the food grains significantly increased with increasing length of its exposure to the novel food, indicating a careful nature of the species in selecting new food. No-choice tests revealed that groundnut - maize 1:1 mixture can be cost effective bait base and its consumption was not signiifcantly different from that of pure groundnut. Saccharin (5%) supplemented groundnut – maize (1:1) bait was consumed in significantly higher quantities, while all other aditives (common salt, egg yolk, egg shell powder, fish meal, peanut butter, mineral oil, bone meal, coconut oil and yeast powder) at both 2% and 5% concentrations and saccharin at 2% concentration did not significantly increase the intake of groundnut – maize (1:1) bait. Consumption of bait, offered after 3 days of pre-baiting, significantly declined when poisoned with 3% zinc phophide and such effects were delayed with 2% and 1% zinc phosphide. Groundnut – maize (1:1) poisoned with 2% zinc phosphide resulted in maximum decrease (55%) in porcupine burrow activity. Strychnine alkaloid (2%) added groundnut – maize (1:1) bait was seriously shuned by porcupine and caused minimum reduction (25%) in burrow activity. Coumatetralyl (0.0375%) added bait caused the highest reduction (80%) in burrow activity. Saccharin (5%) supplemented poison baits were more acceptable and caused some 10% higher reduction in burrow activity using allpoison cereal bait formulations.
Field trials on fresh food items suggested that guava was preferred over potato, carrot and sweet potato. Peanut butter did not significantly increase consumption of guava. Consumption of zinc phosphide impregnated guava, offered after 3 days of prebaiting, exhibited a decline and no bait was consumed on 3rd day of poison baiting. Decline was the most rapid with 3% zinc phosphide and minimum with 1% zinc
phosphide. Maximum reduction in burrow activity (55%) was recorded with 2% zinc phosphide, followed by 1% (35%) and 3% (25%).
Fumigation of porcupine burrows with aluminium phosphide tablets produced 100% reduction in burrow activity, by applying 8 tablets per burrow, 85%, by 6 tablets and 75% by 4 tablets per burrow. A 100% reduction in burrow activity was recorded by applying 4 tablets of aluminum phosphide per burrow in small, 6 tablets in medium and 8 tablets in large burrows.
The present study suggested that initial control of the porcupine can be achieved by applying 2% zinc phosphide using guava or 1:1 groundnut – maize mixture supplemented with 5% saccharin. Coumatetralyl (0.0375%) poisoned bait can give a higher control of porcupine, yet involves a higher labour cost and can used as a second line of action. Fumigation of burrows with aluminum phosphide is though cost effective and can be used in the porcupine management programme, yet is nonspecific in its action and hence can be pressed into action under emergent conditions only.

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1,631 KB
S. No. Chapter Title of the Chapters Page Size (KB)
1 0 CONTENTS

 

iv
78 KB
2

1

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background Of The Problem

1.2 Objectives
1.3 Indian Crested Porcupine

1
377 KB
3 2 REVIEW OF LITERATURE

2.1 Grain Baits

2.2 Fresh Food Baits
2.3 Fumigation

27
218 KB
4 3 MATERIALS AND METHODS

3.1 Study Area

3.2 Burrow Selection
3.3 Bait Evaluation
3.4 Experimental Procedure
3.5 Fumigation

3.6 Statistical Analysis

48
215 KB
5 4 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

4.1 Evaluation Of Grain Baits

4.2 Evaluation Of Fresh Baits
4.3 Fumigation

4.4 Conclusions / Recommendations

65
611 KB
6 5 APPENDICES & LITERATURE CITED 174
256 KB