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Title of Thesis

Sohaila Raees
Institute/University/Department Details
University of Karachi, Pakistan / Institute of Clinical Psychology
Clinical Psychology
Number of Pages
Keywords (Extracted from title, table of contents and abstract of thesis)
thematic apperception test, pakistani males, pakistani females, american males, american females, personality assessment, sociocultural factors

The purpose of the present research was to develop norms for the Thematic Apperception test (TAT) for Pakistani population and to compare the obtained TAT responses with the responses of American subjects. 50 male and 50 female undergraduate college students were randomly selected from four colleges for Karachi, (Pakistan) and the TAT was administered to them. Eron’s (1950) method was used for the scoring and analysis of the protocols. The inter-Scorer reliability was found to be 85.4%. The TAT norms developed by Eron (1950 : 1953) were also used to make comparisons between Pakistani and American Subjects on TAT responses. Chi-square technique was used to determine the statistical significance of the differences.

The responses of Pakistani males and females were compared with the responses of American males and females respectively, for frequency of themes, identification of characters and objects, attention to details and stimulus value of the cards. The comparisons on these dimensions were made between Pakistani and American Subjects for (i) total number of responses given on all 20 cards, as well as for (ii) total number of responses of the subjects on each card.

Significant differences appeared in 26% and 28% of the total number of themes between Pakistani and American males and females, respectively. Pakistani subjects appear more defensive and produced more constricted and descriptive stories as compared to American subjects. Significant differences were also found between both male as well as female groups for perceptual distortions in the identification of objects and characters. .59 correlations was found between Pakistani and American males for the ranking of the cards.

In cards-wise comparisons similarities as well as differences between Pakistani and American subjects were noted on each card. Some comparisons were also made between Pakistani male and female subjects in order to highlight their group characteristics.

It was assumed that the authority oriented social structure of Pakistani society with encourages dependency on authority figures and the value system which stresses strong inhition of impulses would result in more dependency and fewer sex and aggression themes by Pakistanis as compared to American subjects. The repressive tendencies of Pakistani subjects were apparent in dealing with fantasy material related to sex, where they produced significantly fewer themes than American subjects. No significant difference was found between the American and Pakistani subjects in the dependency on authority figures themes, however American subjects gave significantly more parental pressure themes than Pakistani Subjects. Likewise no significant difference was found in the number of aggression themes between the two groups, but American subjects were more specific in their target of aggression, whereas Pakistanis directed aggresson toward impersonal sources.

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1892.87 KB
S. No. Chapter Title of the Chapters Page Size (KB)
1 0 Contents
84.67 KB
2 1 Introduction
288.04 KB
  1.1 Personality and its Assessment 1
  1.2 Projective Techniques 4
  1.3 The Thematic Apperception Test 11
  1.4 Evaluation of the TAT 16
  1.5 Cultural Variables and the TAT 34
3 2 Problem 47
16.62 KB
4 3 Literature Review
326.86 KB
  3.1 The TAT in Cross-Cultural Settings 49
  3.2 Sociocultural Factors and Their Role in Shaping Personality 67
  3.3 Impact of Cultural Values on The Expression of Aggression Sex and Dependency Variables. 70
  3.4 Pakistani Society and its Personality Profile 90
5 4 Expected Norms and Hypotheses 101
26.72 KB
6 5 Methods Subjects 106
92.85 KB
  5.1 Method of Administration technique of Analyzing Stories 114
  5.2 Inter-Scorer Reliability 118
  5.3 Statistical Method 119
7 6 Results 121
728.12 KB
8 7 Discussion Comparison of Themes 239
415.75 KB
  7.1 Comparison of Pakistani and American Subjects on Total Number of themes 239
  7.2 Comparison Between Pakistani Males and Females for Popular themes 241
  7.3 Comparisons of Pakistani and American Males on Total Number of themes 243
  7.4 Comparison of Pakistani and American Females for Total Number of themes 247
  7.5 New Themes given by Pakistani males and females 251
  7.6 Card-wise comparisons of Pakistani and American Responses 253
9 8 References 306
177.74 KB
10 9 Appendix
139.4 KB
  9.1 Appendix-A 325
  9.2 Appendix-B 333