Pakistan Research Repository


Raees, Sohaila (1993) NORMING OF THE THEMATIC APPERCEPTION TEST IN PAKISTAN. PhD thesis, University of Karachi, Karachi.



The purpose of the present research was to develop norms for the Thematic Apperception test (TAT) for Pakistani population and to compare the obtained TAT responses with the responses of American subjects. 50 male and 50 female undergraduate college students were randomly selected from four colleges for Karachi, (Pakistan) and the TAT was administered to them. Eron’s (1950) method was used for the scoring and analysis of the protocols. The inter-Scorer reliability was found to be 85.4%. The TAT norms developed by Eron (1950 : 1953) were also used to make comparisons between Pakistani and American Subjects on TAT responses. Chi-square technique was used to determine the statistical significance of the differences. The responses of Pakistani males and females were compared with the responses of American males and females respectively, for frequency of themes, identification of characters and objects, attention to details and stimulus value of the cards. The comparisons on these dimensions were made between Pakistani and American Subjects for (i) total number of responses given on all 20 cards, as well as for (ii) total number of responses of the subjects on each card. Significant differences appeared in 26% and 28% of the total number of themes between Pakistani and American males and females, respectively. Pakistani subjects appear more defensive and produced more constricted and descriptive stories as compared to American subjects. Significant differences were also found between both male as well as female groups for perceptual distortions in the identification of objects and characters. .59 correlations was found between Pakistani and American males for the ranking of the cards. In cards-wise comparisons similarities as well as differences between Pakistani and American subjects were noted on each card. Some comparisons were also made between Pakistani male and female subjects in order to highlight their group characteristics. It was assumed that the authority oriented social structure of Pakistani society with encourages dependency on authority figures and the value system which stresses strong inhition of impulses would result in more dependency and fewer sex and aggression themes by Pakistanis as compared to American subjects. The repressive tendencies of Pakistani subjects were apparent in dealing with fantasy material related to sex, where they produced significantly fewer themes than American subjects. No significant difference was found between the American and Pakistani subjects in the dependency on authority figures themes, however American subjects gave significantly more parental pressure themes than Pakistani Subjects. Likewise no significant difference was found in the number of aggression themes between the two groups, but American subjects were more specific in their target of aggression, whereas Pakistanis directed aggresson toward impersonal sources.

Item Type:Thesis (PhD)
Uncontrolled Keywords:thematic apperception test, pakistani males, pakistani females, american males, american females, personality assessment, sociocultural factors
Subjects:Social Sciences(g) > Psychology (g16)
ID Code:631
Deposited By:Mr. Muhammad Asif
Deposited On:14 Sep 2006
Last Modified:04 Oct 2007 21:01

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