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Title of Thesis

Studies on Biology, Ecology and Management of Asphodelus Tenuifolius Cav. In chickpea

Author(s)

MUHAMMAD ISHFAQ KHAN

Institute/University/Department Details
Department Of Weed Science, Faculty Of Crop Protection Sciences / NWFP Agricultural University, Peshawar
Session
2009
Subject
Agriculture (Weed Science)
Number of Pages
145
Keywords (Extracted from title, table of contents and abstract of thesis)
Studies, Biology, Ecology, Management, Asphodelus Tenuifolius, chickpea, isoproturon, germination, tenuifolius, cultivars

Abstract
A series of experiments were conducted for the management of Asphodelus tenuifolius in chickpea. A. tenuifolius is a noxious weed in sandy areas of Pakistan. Average losses due to this weed in chickpea range from 38 to 42%. Thus, in order to harvest potential chickpea yield, the judicious management of this weed is essential. In the first experiment, seeds of four biotypes of A. tenufolius were collected from Bannu, Karak, Bhakkar and Mianwali districts of Pakistan for a series of laboratory experiments at the Department of Weed Science, NWFP Agricultural University Peshawar-Pakistan. Seeds were treated with four chemicals viz.gibberellic acid (GA3), potassium nitrate (KNO3), thiourea (THU) and sodium azide (SA) at different rates and incubated at three temperatures (10, 20 or 30oC). The Bannu and Mianwali biotypes were most germinable at 20oC, while germination of the Bhakkar biotype was slightly higher at 10oC as compared to other biotypes. In another experiment, four chickpea cultivars, along with A. tenuifolius seeds, were tested under the same protocols. All chickpea cultivars showed 100% germination at all concentrations except 3.07 mM while A. tenuifolius produced very little or no germination at all concentrations except 0 and 0.76 mM. The second experiment was also undertaken in pots to investigate the effect of different herbicides and doses on A. tenuifolius at different growth stages. Four biotypes (Bannu, Karak, Bhakkar and Mianwali) of A. tenuifolius were subjected to two herbicides, viz. isoproturon and fenoxaprop-p-ethyl, each at four doses including an untreated check. The main effects of growth stages, biotypes and herbicide doses significantly affected the fresh and dry weight of A. teuifolius. Two leaf stage was more susceptible to herbicides at all doses as compared to other growth stages. Another pot experiment was undertaken for testing the tolerance of chickpea cultivars to preemergence pendimethalin 330E and post emergence fenoxaprop-p-ethyl 75 EW, each with four doses. The varieties tested for tolerance were KC-98, Sheenghar, Lawaghir, KK-1, KK-2, SL-01-13, SL-02-13, SL-02- 20, SL-02-22, SL-02-29, SL-03-29 and SL-04-29. The 1X dose produced intermediate fresh and dry biomass. Untreated check and x dose produced maximum biomass while either of the herbicides at 1.5X dose produced very low dry weight. All the tested cultivars were tolerant to both the herbicides at x and 1X doses. Two experiments were conducted in chickpea during 2005-06 and 2006-07 on farmer’s field at district Lakki Marwat, North West Frontier Province, Pakistan. Five herbicides pendimethalin (preemergence), s-metolachlor (pre-emergence), fenoxaprop-p-ethyl (post-emergence), MCPA (post-emergence), and isoproturon (post-emergence) with four different doses (0, x, 1X and 1.5X) were studied in the trials. All herbicides except MCPA and isoproturon showed no phytotoxic effects on chickpea crop. MCPA proved detrimental to both crop and weed growth. While isoproturon was weaker on A. tenuifolius as well as had lesser phytoxicity on crop. Best seed yield (1164 kg ha-1) was recorded in pre-emergence herbicide pendimethalin at 1.5X dose as compared to post emergence herbicide isoproturon (981.6 kg ha-1). Another field experiment was conducted on herbicides and growth stages of A. tenuifolius. Two herbicides isoproturon and fenoxaprop-p-ethyl with four rates (0, x, 1X and 1.5X) and two growth stages (2 leaf and 4 leaf) were undertaken in the studies. Fenoxaprop-p-ethyl produced better results at the 1X rate by producing 1114 kg ha-1 seed yield in 2005-06 and 1098 in 2006-07 as compared to untreated check (988.6, 979.6 kg ha-1) in 2005-06 and 2006-07, respectively. Two leaf stage of wild onion was more susceptible to fenoxaprop-p-ethyl as compared to 4 leaf stage. Our findings proved that pre emergence herbicides like pendimethalin and smetolachlor at 1.5X dose are the best choice for reducing wild onion infestation in chickpea under field conditions.

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715 KB
S. No. Chapter Title of the Chapters Page Size (KB)
1 0 CONTENTS

 

 
123 KB
2

1

IMPACT, REVIEW AND OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDIES 1
101 KB
3 2 REVIEW OF LITERATURE 6
150 KB
4 3 STUDIES ON TEMPERATURE REGIMES AND DORMANCY BREAKING CHEMICALS INFLUENCING SEED GERMINATION OF CHICKPEA AND A. TENUIFOLIUS (CAV.)

3.1 Introduction

3.2 Materials and Methods

3.3 Results

3.4 Discussion

21
158 KB
5 4 EFFECT OF DIFFERENT HERBICIDES AND THEIR DOSES AT VARIOUS GROWTH STAGES OF A.TENUIFOLIUS GROWN IN POTS

4.1 Introduction

4.2 Materials and Methods

4.3 Results

4.4 Discussion

35
154 KB
6 5 TOLERANCE OF CHICKPEA CULTIVARS TO MAJOR CHICKPEA HERBICIDES

5.1 Introduction

5.2 Materials and Methods

5.3 Results

5.4 Discussion

50


143 KB
7 6 EFFECT OF PRE AND POST EMERGENCE HERBICIDES ON A. IN CHICKPEA UNDER FIELD CONDITIONS

6.1 Introduction

6.2 Materials and Methods

6.3 Results

6.4 Discussion

63


177 KB
8 7 EFFECT OF SOME HERBICIDES AND THEIR DOSES AT DIFFERENT GROWTH STAGES A. TENUIFOLIUS UNDER FIELD CONDITION

7.1 Introduction

7.2 Materials and Methods

7.3 Results

7.4 Discussion

83


173 KB
9 10 SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

103


98.7 KB
10 9 LITERATURE CITED & APPENDICES

107


229 KB