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Studies on Biology, Ecology and Management of Asphodelus Tenuifolius Cav. In chickpea

KHAN, MUHAMMAD ISHFAQ (2009) Studies on Biology, Ecology and Management of Asphodelus Tenuifolius Cav. In chickpea. PhD thesis, NWFP Agriculture University, Peshawar .

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Abstract

A series of experiments were conducted for the management of Asphodelus tenuifolius in chickpea. A. tenuifolius is a noxious weed in sandy areas of Pakistan. Average losses due to this weed in chickpea range from 38 to 42%. Thus, in order to harvest potential chickpea yield, the judicious management of this weed is essential. In the first experiment, seeds of four biotypes of A. tenufolius were collected from Bannu, Karak, Bhakkar and Mianwali districts of Pakistan for a series of laboratory experiments at the Department of Weed Science, NWFP Agricultural University Peshawar-Pakistan. Seeds were treated with four chemicals viz.gibberellic acid (GA3), potassium nitrate (KNO3), thiourea (THU) and sodium azide (SA) at different rates and incubated at three temperatures (10, 20 or 30oC). The Bannu and Mianwali biotypes were most germinable at 20oC, while germination of the Bhakkar biotype was slightly higher at 10oC as compared to other biotypes. In another experiment, four chickpea cultivars, along with A. tenuifolius seeds, were tested under the same protocols. All chickpea cultivars showed 100% germination at all concentrations except 3.07 mM while A. tenuifolius produced very little or no germination at all concentrations except 0 and 0.76 mM. The second experiment was also undertaken in pots to investigate the effect of different herbicides and doses on A. tenuifolius at different growth stages. Four biotypes (Bannu, Karak, Bhakkar and Mianwali) of A. tenuifolius were subjected to two herbicides, viz. isoproturon and fenoxaprop-p-ethyl, each at four doses including an untreated check. The main effects of growth stages, biotypes and herbicide doses significantly affected the fresh and dry weight of A. teuifolius. Two leaf stage was more susceptible to herbicides at all doses as compared to other growth stages. Another pot experiment was undertaken for testing the tolerance of chickpea cultivars to preemergence pendimethalin 330E and post emergence fenoxaprop-p-ethyl 75 EW, each with four doses. The varieties tested for tolerance were KC-98, Sheenghar, Lawaghir, KK-1, KK-2, SL-01-13, SL-02-13, SL-02- 20, SL-02-22, SL-02-29, SL-03-29 and SL-04-29. The 1X dose produced intermediate fresh and dry biomass. Untreated check and ½x dose produced maximum biomass while either of the herbicides at 1.5X dose produced very low dry weight. All the tested cultivars were tolerant to both the herbicides at ½x and 1X doses. Two experiments were conducted in chickpea during 2005-06 and 2006-07 on farmer’s field at district Lakki Marwat, North West Frontier Province, Pakistan. Five herbicides pendimethalin (preemergence), s-metolachlor (pre-emergence), fenoxaprop-p-ethyl (post-emergence), MCPA (post-emergence), and isoproturon (post-emergence) with four different doses (0, ½x, 1X and 1.5X) were studied in the trials. All herbicides except MCPA and isoproturon showed no phytotoxic effects on chickpea crop. MCPA proved detrimental to both crop and weed growth. While isoproturon was weaker on A. tenuifolius as well as had lesser phytoxicity on crop. Best seed yield (1164 kg ha-1) was recorded in pre-emergence herbicide pendimethalin at 1.5X dose as compared to post emergence herbicide isoproturon (981.6 kg ha-1). Another field experiment was conducted on herbicides and growth stages of A. tenuifolius. Two herbicides isoproturon and fenoxaprop-p-ethyl with four rates (0, ½x, 1X and 1.5X) and two growth stages (2 leaf and 4 leaf) were undertaken in the studies. Fenoxaprop-p-ethyl produced better results at the 1X rate by producing 1114 kg ha-1 seed yield in 2005-06 and 1098 in 2006-07 as compared to untreated check (988.6, 979.6 kg ha-1) in 2005-06 and 2006-07, respectively. Two leaf stage of wild onion was more susceptible to fenoxaprop-p-ethyl as compared to 4 leaf stage. Our findings proved that pre emergence herbicides like pendimethalin and smetolachlor at 1.5X dose are the best choice for reducing wild onion infestation in chickpea under field conditions.

Item Type:Thesis (PhD)
Uncontrolled Keywords:Studies, Biology, Ecology, Management, Asphodelus Tenuifolius, chickpea, isoproturon, germination, tenuifolius, cultivars
Subjects:Agriculture & Veterinary Sciences(a) > Agriculture(a1)
ID Code:6282
Deposited By:Mr. Javed Memon
Deposited On:18 Jun 2011 10:52
Last Modified:18 Jun 2011 10:52

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