Title of Thesis
Depression and Anxiety in Adulthood as a Function of Birth Trauma
Faculty of Professional Psychology / Bahria
|Number of Pages|
|Keywords (Extracted from title, table of contents and
abstract of thesis)|
Depression, Anxiety, Adulthood,
Function, Birth Trauma, Pakistan, Cesarean Section,
Vacuum Extraction, Demographic
A study was
conducted on “Depression and Anxiety in adulthood as a function of
Birth Trauma in Pakistan”. The main aim of the study was to assess
the impact of birth trauma and assess the level of anxiety and
depression in adult population of Pakistan.
For the purpose of this study Birth Trauma was classified into 2
distinct groups: 500 participants were included in this study.
1. 100 Individuals of both sexes born under Cesarean Section.
2. 100 Individuals of both sexes born through Forceps or Vacuum
3. 300 individuals of both sexes were taken as a controlled group
who were born through the normal birth procedure.
It was hypothesized that individuals born through a traumatic birth
procedure will be more vulnerable towards anxiety and depression in
adulthood in Pakistan.
Following measures were used: Demographic Information Form, IPAT-Anxiety
Scale, Personality Assessment Questionnaire.
Chi-Square test was computed in order to obtain the statistical
significance of the data.
The findings showed that individuals who knew they were born through
traumatic birth procedures had high anxiety and depression sten
scores on IPAT Anxiety and IPAT Depression scales as compared to
individuals born through Normal Birth Procedure.