I= ECOLOGY, BIOLOGY AND INTEGRATED CONTROL OF CITRUS NEMATODE (TYLENCHULUS SEMIPENETRANS COBB.) THE CAUSE OF SLOW DECLINE IN THE PUNJAB, PAKISTAN
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Title of Thesis
ECOLOGY, BIOLOGY AND INTEGRATED CONTROL OF CITRUS NEMATODE (TYLENCHULUS SEMIPENETRANS COBB.) THE CAUSE OF SLOW DECLINE IN THE PUNJAB, PAKISTAN

Author(s)
Muhammad Azhar Iqbal
Institute/University/Department Details
Department of Plant Pathology faculty of Agriculture University of Agriculture Faisalabad
Session
2003
Subject
Plant Pathology
Number of Pages
201
Keywords (Extracted from title, table of contents and abstract of thesis)
citrus nematode (tylenchulus semipenetrans cobb.), plant extracts, soil amendments, integrated control, t. semipenetrans, fungus paecilomyces lilacinus, citrus orchards, larval mortality

Abstract

Download Full Thesis
1679.02 KB
S. No. Chapter Title of the Chapters Page Size (KB)
1 0 Contents/ Abstract
66.93 KB
2 1 Introduction 1
78.53 KB
3 2 Review of literature 9
382.32 KB
  2.1 Citrus nematode 9
  2.2 Symptoms 14
  2.3 Losses 16
  2.4 Life cycle of citrus nematode 17
  2.5 Seasonal fluctuation 19
  2.6 Effect of Soil type 22
  2.7 Screening of resistant rootstocks 24
  2.8 Effect of plant extracts 28
  2.9 Effect of soil amendments 30
  2.10 Biological control 31
  2.11 Chemical control 34
  2.12 Integrated control 42
4 3 Materials and Methods 48
209.61 KB
  3.1 Ecological distribution of T. semipenetrans 50
  3.2 Pathogenicity test 54
  3.3 Effect of antagonistic fungus paecilomyces lilacinus 57
  3.4 In vitro effect of plant extracts against T. Semipenetrans 61
  3.5 Evaluation of nematicides against T. Semipenetrans 64
  3.6 Integrated control of T. Semipenetrans 66
5 4 Results 69
640.76 KB
  4.1 Survey of citrus orchards 70
  4.2 Pathogenicity test of T. Semipenetrans against a susceptible variety rough lemon 78
  4.3 Effect of soil type on movement and infection rate of T. Semipenetrans 79
  4.4 Effect of seasonal fluctuation on the population dynamics of T. semipenetrans 81
  4.5 Screening of citrus cultivars against the citrus nematode, T. Semipenetrans 85
  4.6 Effect of P. lilacinus on the T. Semipenetrans with regard to antagonistic level and exposure time 88
  4.7 Effect of different plant extracts( in vitro) on the larval mortality of T. Semipenetrans 91
  4.8 Effect of different plant extract on the larval mortality of T. Semipenetrans 98
  4.9 Evaluation of combined effect of P. lilacinus and different plant extracts on the larval mortality of T. Semipenetrans 104
  4.10 Effect of bare-root dip treatment against citrus nematode 110
  4.11 Evaluation of various nematicides against citrus nematode, T. Semipenetrans 114
  4.12 Evaluation of different nematicides against citrus nematode, T. Semipenetrans on highly diseased trees 118
  4.13 Effect of various nematicides against citrus nematode, T. Semipenetrans on slightly diseased trees 123
  4.14 Integrated control of citrus slow decline (moderately diseased trees) with P. lilacinus , fertilizers and nematicides in the naturally infested orchard 128
6 5 Discussion 142
178.11 KB
7 6 Summary 162
50.66 KB
8 7 Literature cited 168
310.72 KB