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Title of Thesis

Growth of Nano-Structured Thin Films of Magnetic Materials by PLD Technique

Author(s)

Safia Anjum

Institute/University/Department Details
Department of Physics, Faculty of Natural Sciences / University of Engineering & Technology, Lahore
Session
2011
Subject
Physics
Number of Pages
122
Keywords (Extracted from title, table of contents and abstract of thesis)
Material, Magnetization, Films, Temperature, Magnetic, Conditions, Optical, Growth, Technique, Thin, Increases, Structured, Properties, Nano

Abstract
This project is aimed to deposit magnetic thin films by Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD) technique. A KrF Excimer laser (248 nm, 20 ns) operated at 20 Hz was used as an energy source for the deposition. Films are deposited under various deposition conditions, like substrate temperature, oxygen pressure, post annealing and applied external magnetic field depending upon the target material characteristics. On the basis of the structure the deposited films are classified as cubic spinel ferrites (NiFe2O4 and ZnMnZrFeO), Hexaferrite (BaFe12O19) and Alloy (NdFeCo).
NiFe2O4 thin films (cubic spinel ferrites) show that the monotonic increase in saturation magnetization and non-monotonic increase in electrical conductivity depends on the oxygen partial pressure during the growth of the thin films. Another spinel cubic ferrite Zn0.2Mn0.81Zr0.01Fe1.98O4 and Zn0.2Mn0.83Zr0.03Fe1.94O4 thin films with different concentration of Mn and Zr were deposited on single crystal n-Si (400) at room temperature (RT). The films are also deposited under external magnetic filed.The results reveal the effect of external applied magnetic field on the growth of films in terms of small particle size, improved uniformity, lower r.m.s. roughness, higher magnetization and increased thickness. The reflection of Zn0.2Mn0.83Zr0.03Fe1.94O4 thin films are higher than Zn0.2Mn0.81Zr0.01Fe1.98O4 thin films due to the greater concentration of Zr. The band gap energy Eg decreases with increase in film thickness.
In the case of Hexaferrites, the low substrate temperatures (room temperature to 200oC) restrict the formation of larger grains. Whereas, for the higher substrate temperature i.e, 400oC, the grain size of the deposited thin film are much larger. The substrate temperature caused the uniaxial magnetic anisotropy. The higher values of coercivity, squareness and films thickness are associated with the growth of larger grains at higher substrate temperature. For the films deposited under applied magnetic field, the saturation magnetization increases monotonically as the applied field value increases during deposition. Band gap energy (Eg) increases with increasing thickness. With the application of external magnetic field, the magnetic and optical properties of the thin films are significantly enhanced.
Rare earth transition metal doped (NdFeCo) thin films (Alloy) were fabricated on Si substrate keeping the substrate temperature constant at 300oC. Thin films were deposited without and under the influence of various transverse applied magnetic field. All the films exhibit perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. The thickness of the film increases monotonically whereas the saturation magnetization and optical band gap eneggy increases non- monotonically. The maximum value of Ms and Eg are found when the applied magnetic field value is 4.5 KOe.
Magnetic, optical and structural properties of the ferrite thin films (cubic, hexa-ferrites and alloy) are strongly influenced by the deposition conditions. The optimization of the deposition conditions can play an important role to replace the thin films with the bulk material.

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S. No. Chapter Title of the Chapters Page Size (KB)
1 0 CONTENTS

 

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INTRODUCTION AND LITERATURE SURVEY

1.1 Magnetic materials
1.2 The Hysteresis Loop and Magnetic Parameters
1.3 Classification of ferrites
1.4 Thin films
1.5 Deposition techniques
1.6 Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD) Technique
1.7 Deposition parameters of thin films
1.8 Applications of magnetic thin films
1.9 Literature survey

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3 2 EXPERIMENTAL SETUP

2.1 Substrate cleaning
2.2 Setup to grow NiFe2O4 thin films at University of Delaware
2.3 Setup to grow BaFe12O19, NbFeCo and ZnxMn1-x+yZryFe2-2yO4
2.4 Characterizations techniques

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4 3 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

3.1 Growth of NiFe2O4 thin films (Cubic ferrite)
3.2 Growth of ZnxMn1-x+yZryFe2-2yO4 thin films (Cubic ferrite)
3.3 Growth of BaFe12O19 thin films (Hexaferrite)
3.4 Growth of NdFeCo thin films (Alloy)

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5 4 CONCLUSION AND FUTURE WORK

4.1 Effect of Reaction Time on the Leaching Process at Different Temperatures
4.2 Effect of Reaction Temperature on Dissolution
4.3 Effect of Acid Concentration on P2O5 and CO2 Contents
4.4 Effect of Liquid/Solid Ratio on P2O5 and CO2 Contents
4.5 Leaching with Lactic acid
4.6 Kinetic Analysis

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REFERENCES

 

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